DPP9 sequesters the C terminus of NLRP1 to repress inflammasome activation.Hollingsworth, L.R., Sharif, H., Griswold, A.R., Fontana, P., Mintseris, J., Dagbay, K.B., Paulo, J.A., Gygi, S.P., Bachovchin, D.A., Wu, H.
(2021) Nature 592: 778-783
- PubMed: 33731932
- DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03350-4
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat pyrin-domain containing protein 1 (NLRP1) is an inflammasome sensor that mediates the activation of caspase-1 to induce cytokine maturation and pyroptosis 1-4 . Gain-of-function mutations of NLRP1 cause severe inflammatory diseases of the skin 4-6 ...
Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat pyrin-domain containing protein 1 (NLRP1) is an inflammasome sensor that mediates the activation of caspase-1 to induce cytokine maturation and pyroptosis 1-4 . Gain-of-function mutations of NLRP1 cause severe inflammatory diseases of the skin 4-6 . NLRP1 contains a function-to-find domain that auto-proteolyses into noncovalently associated subdomains 7-9 , and proteasomal degradation of the repressive N-terminal fragment of NLRP1 releases its inflammatory C-terminal fragment (NLRP1 CT) 10,11 . Cytosolic dipeptidyl peptidases 8 and 9 (hereafter, DPP8/DPP9) both interact with NLRP1, and small-molecule inhibitors of DPP8/DPP9 activate NLRP1 by mechanisms that are currently unclear 10,12-14 . Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of the human NLRP1-DPP9 complex alone and with Val-boroPro (VbP), an inhibitor of DPP8/DPP9. The structures reveal a ternary complex that comprises DPP9, full-length NLRP1 and the NLRPT CT. The binding of the NLRP1 CT to DPP9 requires full-length NLRP1, which suggests that NLRP1 activation is regulated by the ratio of NLRP1 CT to full-length NLRP1. Activation of the inflammasome by ectopic expression of the NLRP1 CT is consistently rescued by co-expression of autoproteolysis-deficient full-length NLRP1. The N terminus of the NLRP1 CT inserts into the DPP9 active site, and VbP disrupts this interaction. Thus, VbP weakens the NLRP1-DPP9 interaction and accelerates degradation of the N-terminal fragment 10 to induce inflammasome activation. Overall, these data demonstrate that DPP9 quenches low levels of NLRP1 CT and thus serves as a checkpoint for activation of the NLRP1 inflammasome.
Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org.