AMPK and AKT protein kinases hierarchically phosphorylate the N-terminus of the FOXO1 transcription factor, modulating interactions with 14-3-3 proteins.Saline, M., Badertscher, L., Wolter, M., Lau, R., Gunnarsson, A., Jacso, T., Norris, T., Ottmann, C., Snijder, A.
(2019) J Biol Chem 294: 13106-13116
- PubMed: 31308176
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA119.008649
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) is a transcription factor involved in various cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, development, stress resistance, and tumor suppression. FOXO1's transcriptional activity is controlled by different environmental cues through a myriad of posttranslational modifications. In response to growth factors, the serine/threonine kinase AKT phosphorylates Thr 24 and Ser 256 in FOXO1 to stimulate binding of 14-3-3 proteins, causing FOXO1 inactivation. In contrast, low nutrient and energy levels induce FOXO1 activity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, partly mediates this effect through phosphorylation of Ser 383 and Thr 649 in FOXO1. In this study, we identified Ser 22 as an additional AMPK phosphorylation site in FOXO1's N terminus, with Ser 22 phosphorylation preventing binding of 14-3-3 proteins. The crystal structure of a FOXO1 peptide in complex with 14-3-3 σ at 2.3 Å resolution revealed that this is a consequence of both steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsion. Furthermore, we found that AMPK-mediated Ser 22 phosphorylation impairs Thr 24 phosphorylation by AKT in a hierarchical manner. Thus, numerous mechanisms maintain FOXO1 activity via AMPK signaling. AMPK-mediated Ser 22 phosphorylation directly and indirectly averts binding of 14-3-3 proteins, whereas phosphorylation of Ser 383 and Thr 649 complementarily stimulates FOXO1 activity. Our results shed light on a mechanism that integrates inputs from both AMPK and AKT signaling pathways in a small motif to fine-tune FOXO1 transcriptional activity.
Discovery Biology, Discovery Sciences, R&D, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.