Crystal structure of Coleus blumei rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS) in complex with 4-coumaroyl-(R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactate

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 3.35 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.329 
  • R-Value Work: 0.277 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.282 

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Independent evolution of rosmarinic acid biosynthesis in two sister families under the Lamiids clade of flowering plants.

Levsh, O.Pluskal, T.Carballo, V.Mitchell, A.J.Weng, J.K.

(2019) J Biol Chem 294: 15193-15205

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA119.010454
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    As a means to maintain their sessile lifestyle amid challenging environments, plants produce an enormous diversity of compounds as chemical defenses against biotic and abiotic insults. The underpinning metabolic pathways that support the biosynthesis of these specialized chemicals in divergent plant species provide a rich arena for understanding the molecular evolution of complex metabolic traits. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic natural product first discovered in plants of the mint family (Lamiaceae) and is recognized for its wide range of medicinal properties and potential applications in human dietary and medical interventions. Interestingly, the RA chemotype is present sporadically in multiple taxa of flowering plants as well as some hornworts and ferns, prompting the question whether its biosynthesis arose independently across different lineages. Here we report the elucidation of the RA biosynthetic pathway in Phacelia campanularia (desert bells). This species represents the borage family (Boraginaceae), an RA-producing family closely related to the Lamiaceae within the Lamiids clade. Using a multi-omics approach in combination with functional characterization of candidate genes both in vitro and in vivo , we found that RA biosynthesis in P. campanularia involves specific activities of a BAHD acyltransferase and two cytochrome P450 hydroxylases. Further phylogenetic and comparative structure-function analyses of the P. campanularia RA biosynthetic enzymes clearly indicate that RA biosynthesis has evolved independently at least twice in the Lamiids, an exemplary case of chemotypic convergence through disparate evolutionary trajectories.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Rosmarinate synthase430Coleus scutellarioidesMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: RAS
Find proteins for A0PDV5 (Plectranthus scutellarioides)
Explore A0PDV5 
Go to UniProtKB:  A0PDV5
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupA0PDV5
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on JUV

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
B [auth A](2R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-{[(2E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoyl]oxy}propanoic acid
C18 H16 O6
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 3.35 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.329 
  • R-Value Work: 0.277 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.282 
  • Space Group: C 1 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 89.9α = 90
b = 76.32β = 94.47
c = 68.05γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
MOSFLMdata reduction
SCALAdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data

Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
Other privateUnited StatesPew Charitable Trust 27345
Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI)United States--
Other privateUnited StatesSearle Scholars Program 15-SSP-162

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2019-09-11
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2019-09-18
    Changes: Data collection, Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2019-10-30
    Changes: Data collection, Database references
  • Version 1.3: 2019-11-20
    Changes: Author supporting evidence