4"-O-Alkylated alpha-Galactosylceramide Analogues as iNKT-Cell Antigens: Synthetic, Biological, and Structural Studies.Janssens, J., Bitra, A., Wang, J., Decruy, T., Venken, K., van der Eycken, J., Elewaut, D., Zajonc, D.M., van Calenbergh, S.
(2019) ChemMedChem 14: 147-168
- PubMed: 30556652
- DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201800649
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Invariant natural killer T-cells (iNKT) are a glycolipid-responsive subset of T-lymphocytes that fulfill a pivotal role in the immune system. The archetypical synthetic glycolipid, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), whose molecular framework is inspire ...
Invariant natural killer T-cells (iNKT) are a glycolipid-responsive subset of T-lymphocytes that fulfill a pivotal role in the immune system. The archetypical synthetic glycolipid, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), whose molecular framework is inspired by a group of amphiphilic natural products, remains the most studied antigen for iNKT-cells. Nonetheless, the potential of α-GalCer as an immunostimulating agent is compromised by the fact that this glycolipid elicits simultaneous secretion of Th1- and Th2-cytokines. This has incited medicinal chemistry efforts to identify analogues that are able to perturb the Th1/Th2 balance. In this work, we present the synthesis of an extensive set of 4"-O-alkylated α-GalCer analogues, which were evaluated in vivo for their cytokine induction. We have found that conversion of the 4"-OH group to ether moieties decreases the immunogenic potential in mice relative to α-GalCer. Yet, the benzyl-modified glycolipids are able to produce a distinct pro-inflammatory immune response. The crystal structures suggest an extra hydrophobic interaction between the benzyl moiety and the α2-helix of CD1d.
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.,Laboratory for Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutics (FFW), Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.,VIB Inflammation Research Center, UGent-VIB Research Building FSVM, Technologiepark 927, 9052, Zwijnaarde (Ghent), Belgium.,Division of Immune Regulation, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology (LJI), 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.,Laboratory for Organic and Bioorganic Synthesis, Department of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S4), 9000, Ghent, Belgium.