6ITU

Crystal Structure of the GULP1 PTB domain-APP peptide complex


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.17 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.221 
  • R-Value Work: 0.197 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.198 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report


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Literature

Attenuation of amyloid-beta generation by atypical protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of engulfment adaptor PTB domain containing 1 threonine 35.

Chau, D.D.Yung, K.W.Chan, W.W.An, Y.Hao, Y.Chan, H.E.Ngo, J.C.Lau, K.F.

(2019) FASEB J 33: 12019-12035

  • DOI: 10.1096/fj.201802825RR
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    6ITU

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Amyloid-β (Aβ) is derived from the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), and the deposition of extracellular Aβ to form amyloid plaques is a pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although reducing Aβ generation and acc ...

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) is derived from the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), and the deposition of extracellular Aβ to form amyloid plaques is a pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although reducing Aβ generation and accumulation has been proposed as a means of treating the disease, adverse side effects and unsatisfactory efficacy have been reported in several clinical trials that sought to lower Aβ levels. Engulfment adaptor phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain containing 1 (GULP1) is a molecular adaptor that has been shown to interact with APP to alter Aβ production. Therefore, the modulation of the GULP1-APP interaction may be an alternative approach to reducing Aβ. However, the mechanisms that regulate GULP1-APP binding remain elusive. As GULP1 is a phosphoprotein, and because phosphorylation is a common mechanism that regulates protein interaction, we anticipated that GULP1 phosphorylation would influence GULP1-APP interaction and thereby Aβ production. We show here that the phosphorylation of GULP1 threonine 35 (T35) reduces GULP1-APP interaction and suppresses the stimulatory effect of GULP1 on APP processing. The residue is phosphorylated by an isoform of atypical PKC (PKCζ). Overexpression of PKCζ reduces both GULP1-APP interaction and GULP1-mediated Aβ generation. Moreover, the activation of PKCζ via insulin suppresses APP processing. In contrast, GULP1-mediated APP processing is enhanced in PKCζ knockout cells. Similarly, PKC ι, another member of atypical PKC, also decreases GULP1-mediated APP processing. Intriguingly, our X-ray crystal structure of GULP1 PTB-APP intracellular domain (AICD) peptide reveals that GULP1 T35 is not located at the GULP1-AICD binding interface; rather, it immediately precedes the β1-α2 loop that forms a portion of the binding groove for the APP helix αC. Phosphorylating the residue may induce an allosteric effect on the conformation of the binding groove. Our results indicate that GULP1 T35 phosphorylation is a mechanism for the regulation of GULP1-APP interaction and thereby APP processing. Moreover, the activation of atypical PKC, such as by insulin, may confer a beneficial effect on AD by lowering GULP1-mediated Aβ production.-Chau, D. D.-L., Yung, K. W.-Y., Chan, W. W.-L., An, Y., Hao, Y., Chan, H.-Y. E., Ngo, J. C.-K., Lau, K.-F. Attenuation of amyloid-β generation by atypical protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of engulfment adaptor PTB domain containing 1 threonine 35.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Faculty of Science, School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
PTB domain-containing engulfment adapter protein 1A168Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: GULP1CED6GULP
Find proteins for Q9UBP9 (Homo sapiens)
Explore Q9UBP9 
Go to UniProtKB:  Q9UBP9
NIH Common Fund Data Resources
PHAROS  Q9UBP9
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
  • Find similar proteins by:  Sequence   |   Structure
Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Amyloid beta A4 proteinB12Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: APPA4AD1
Find proteins for P05067 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P05067 
Go to UniProtKB:  P05067
NIH Common Fund Data Resources
PHAROS  P05067
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
SO4
Query on SO4

Download CCD File 
A
SULFATE ION
O4 S
QAOWNCQODCNURD-UHFFFAOYSA-L
 Ligand Interaction
EDO
Query on EDO

Download CCD File 
B
1,2-ETHANEDIOL
C2 H6 O2
LYCAIKOWRPUZTN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.17 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.221 
  • R-Value Work: 0.197 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.198 
  • Space Group: P 32 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 63.91α = 90
b = 63.91β = 90
c = 108.771γ = 120
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
REFMACrefinement
MOSFLMdata reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling
PHASERphasing

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report



Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data


Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
Hong Kong03140086

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2019-08-14
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2019-11-20
    Changes: Database references