Structural basis for selective inhibition of human PKG I alpha by the balanol-like compound N46.Qin, L., Sankaran, B., Aminzai, S., Casteel, D.E., Kim, C.
(2018) J. Biol. Chem. 293: 10985-10992
- PubMed: 29769318
- DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.002427
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Activation of PKG Iα in nociceptive neurons induces a long-term hyperexcitability that causes chronic pain. Recently, a derivative of the fungal metabolite balanol, N46, has been reported to inhibit PKG Iα with high potency and selectivity and attenu ...
Activation of PKG Iα in nociceptive neurons induces a long-term hyperexcitability that causes chronic pain. Recently, a derivative of the fungal metabolite balanol, N46, has been reported to inhibit PKG Iα with high potency and selectivity and attenuates thermal hyperalgesia and osteoarthritic pain. Here, we determined co-crystal structures of the PKG Iα C-domain and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) Cα, each bound with N46, at 1.98 Å and 2.65 Å, respectively. N46 binds the active site with its external phenyl ring specifically interacting with the glycine-rich loop and the αC helix. Phe371 at the PKG Iα glycine-rich loop is oriented parallel to the phenyl ring of N46, forming a strong π-stacking interaction, while the analogous Phe54 in PKA Cα rotates 30º and forms a weaker interaction. Structural comparison revealed that steric hindrance between the preceding Ser53 and the propoxy group of the phenyl ring may explain the weaker interaction with PKA Cα. The analogous Gly370 in PKG Iα, however, causes little steric hindrance with Phe371. Moreover, Ile406 on the αC helix forms a hydrophobic interaction with N46 while its counterpart in PKA, Thr88, does not. Substituting these residues in PKG Iα with those in PKA Cα increases its IC50 values for N46 whereas replacing these residues in PKA Cα with those in PKG Iα reduces the IC50, consistent with our structural findings. In conclusion, our results explain the structural basis for N46-mediated selective inhibition of human PKG Iα and provide a starting point for structure-guided design of selective PKG Iα inhibitors.
Baylor College of Medicine, United States.