Design of Highly Potent, Dual-Acting and Central-Nervous-System-Penetrating HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors with Excellent Potency against Multidrug-Resistant HIV-1 Variants.Ghosh, A.K., Rao, K.V., Nyalapatla, P.R., Kovela, S., Brindisi, M., Osswald, H.L., Sekhara Reddy, B., Agniswamy, J., Wang, Y.F., Aoki, M., Hattori, S.I., Weber, I.T., Mitsuya, H.
(2018) ChemMedChem 13: 803-815
- PubMed: 29437300
- DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201700824
- PubMed Abstract:
Herein we report the design, synthesis, X-ray structural, and biological studies of an exceptionally potent HIV-1 protease inhibitor, compound 5 ((3S,7aS,8S)-hexahydro-4H-3,5-methanofuro[2,3-b]pyran-8-yl ((2S,3R)-4-((2-(cyclopropylamino)-N-isobutylbe ...
Herein we report the design, synthesis, X-ray structural, and biological studies of an exceptionally potent HIV-1 protease inhibitor, compound 5 ((3S,7aS,8S)-hexahydro-4H-3,5-methanofuro[2,3-b]pyran-8-yl ((2S,3R)-4-((2-(cyclopropylamino)-N-isobutylbenzo[d]thiazole)-6-sulfonamido)-1-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-3-hydroxybutan-2-yl)carbamate). Using structure-based design, we incorporated an unprecedented 6-5-5-ring-fused crown-like tetrahydropyranofuran as the P2-ligand, a cyclopropylaminobenzothiazole as the P2'-ligand, and a 3,5-difluorophenylmethyl group as the P1-ligand. The resulting inhibitor 5 exhibited exceptional HIV-1 protease inhibitory and antiviral potency at the picomolar level. Furthermore, it displayed antiviral IC 50 values in the picomolar range against a wide panel of highly multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants. The inhibitor shows an extremely high genetic barrier against the emergence of drug-resistant variants. It also showed extremely potent inhibitory activity toward dimerization as well as favorable central nervous system penetration. We determined a high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the complex between inhibitor 5 and HIV-1 protease, which provides molecular insight into the unprecedented activity profiles observed.
Experimental Retrovirology Section, HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.,Department of Chemistry and Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA.,Center for Clinical Sciences, National Center for Global Heath and Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 162-8655, Japan.,Departments of Biology and Chemistry, Molecular Basis of Disease, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, 30303, USA.,Departments of Hematology and Infectious Diseases, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto, 860-8556, Japan.