Crystal structure of the ACT domain of prephenate dehydrogenase tyrA from Bacillus anthracis

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.01 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.232 
  • R-Value Work: 0.171 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.174 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report

This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history


Structural and biochemical analysis of Bacillus anthracis prephenate dehydrogenase reveals an unusual mode of inhibition by tyrosine via the ACT domain.

Shabalin, I.G.Gritsunov, A.Hou, J.Slawek, J.Miks, C.D.Cooper, D.R.Minor, W.Christendat, D.

(2020) FEBS J 287: 2235-2255

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.15150
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    5UYY, 5V0S, 6CXD, 6U60

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Tyrosine biosynthesis via the shikimate pathway is absent in humans and other animals, making it an attractive target for next-generation antibiotics, which is increasingly important due to the looming proliferation of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Tyrosine biosynthesis is also of commercial importance for the environmentally friendly production of numerous compounds, such as pharmaceuticals, opioids, aromatic polymers, and petrochemical aromatics. Prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) catalyzes the penultimate step of tyrosine biosynthesis in bacteria: the oxidative decarboxylation of prephenate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. The majority of PDHs are competitively inhibited by tyrosine and consist of a nucleotide-binding domain and a dimerization domain. Certain PDHs, including several from pathogens on the World Health Organization priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, possess an additional ACT domain. However, biochemical and structural knowledge was lacking for these enzymes. In this study, we successfully established a recombinant protein expression system for PDH from Bacillus anthracis (BaPDH), the causative agent of anthrax, and determined the structure of a BaPDH ternary complex with NAD + and tyrosine, a binary complex with tyrosine, and a structure of an isolated ACT domain dimer. We also conducted detailed kinetic and biophysical analyses of the enzyme. We show that BaPDH is allosterically regulated by tyrosine binding to the ACT domains, resulting in an asymmetric conformation of the BaDPH dimer that sterically prevents prephenate binding to either active site. The presented mode of allosteric inhibition is unique compared to both the competitive inhibition established for other PDHs and to the allosteric mechanisms for other ACT-containing enzymes. This study provides new structural and mechanistic insights that advance our understanding of tyrosine biosynthesis in bacteria. ENZYMES: Prephenate dehydrogenase from Bacillus anthracis (PDH): EC database ID: DATABASES: Coordinates and structure factors have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) with accession numbers PDB ID: 6U60 (BaPDH complex with NAD + and tyrosine), PDB ID: 5UYY (BaPDH complex with tyrosine), and PDB ID: 5V0S (BaPDH isolated ACT domain dimer). The diffraction images are available at http://proteindiffraction.org with DOIs: https://doi.org/10.18430/M35USC, https://doi.org/10.18430/M35UYY, and https://doi.org/10.18430/M35V0S.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Prephenate dehydrogenase
A, B
69Bacillus anthracisMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: tyrAGBAA_2954BASH2_02940
Find proteins for Q81P63 (Bacillus anthracis)
Explore Q81P63 
Go to UniProtKB:  Q81P63
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupQ81P63
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Modified Residues  1 Unique
IDChains TypeFormula2D DiagramParent
Query on MSE
A, B
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 48.07α = 90
b = 48.07β = 90
c = 233.395γ = 120
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
MD2data collection
HKL-3000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
DENZOdata reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data

Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
National Institutes of Health/National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIH/NIGMS)United StatesGM118619
National Institutes of Health/National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIH/NIGMS)United StatesGM117325
National Institutes of Health/National Center for Research Resources (NIH/NCRR)United StatesRR029205

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2017-03-08
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2017-09-20
    Changes: Author supporting evidence, Refinement description
  • Version 1.2: 2021-04-07
    Changes: Database references, Derived calculations
  • Version 1.3: 2022-03-23
    Changes: Author supporting evidence, Database references