Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.93 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.284 
  • R-Value Work: 0.188 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.193 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report

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Machilin A Inhibits Tumor Growth and Macrophage M2 Polarization Through the Reduction of Lactic Acid.

Chung, T.-W.Kim, E.-Y.Han, C.W.Park, S.Y.Jeong, M.S.Yoon, D.Choi, H.-J.Jin, L.Park, M.-J.Kwon, Y.J.Lee, H.Kim, K.-J.Park, K.H.Kim, S.Jang, S.B.Ha, K.-T.

(2019) Cancers (Basel) 11

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070963
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    5ZJD, 5ZJE, 5ZJF

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is an important enzyme responsible for cancer growth and energy metabolism in various cancers via the aerobic glycolytic pathway. Here, we report that machilin A (MA), which acts as a competitive inhibitor by blocking the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) binding site of LDHA, suppresses growth of cancer cells and lactate production in various cancer cell types, including colon, breast, lung, and liver cancers. Furthermore, MA markedly decreased LDHA activity, lactate production, and intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels induced by hypoxia-induced LDHA expression in cancer cells, and significantly inhibited colony formation, leading to reduced cancer cell survival. In mouse models inoculated with murine Lewis lung carcinoma, MA significantly suppressed tumor growth as observed by a reduction of tumor volume and weight; resulting from the inhibition of LDHA activity. Subsequently, the suppression of tumor-derived lactic acid in MA-treated cancer cells resulted in decrease of neovascularization through the regulation of alternatively activated macrophages (M2) polarization in macrophages. Taken together, we suggest that the reduction of lactate by MA in cancer cells directly results in a suppression of cancer cell growth. Furthermore, macrophage polarization and activation of endothelial cells for angiogenesis were indirectly regulated preventing lactate production in MA-treated cancer cells.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Clinical Pathology, DaeKyeung University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 38547, Korea.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
A, B, C, D, E
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L
337Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: LDHAPIG19
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P00338 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P00338 
Go to UniProtKB:  P00338
PHAROS:  P00338
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP00338
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.93 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.284 
  • R-Value Work: 0.188 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.193 
  • Space Group: P 1 21 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 85.588α = 90
b = 219.333β = 92.28
c = 112.788γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
HKL-2000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data

Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
National Research Foundation (Korea)Korea, Republic Of2015R1D1A1A01059594

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2019-07-24
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2019-11-20
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2023-11-22
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Refinement description