5ZH2

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF PfKRS WITH INHIBITOR CLADO-5


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.66 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.258 
  • R-Value Work: 0.215 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Specific Stereoisomeric Conformations Determine the Drug Potency of Cladosporin Scaffold against Malarial Parasite

Das, P.Babbar, P.Malhotra, N.Sharma, M.Jachak, G.R.Gonnade, R.G.Shanmugam, D.Harlos, K.Yogavel, M.Sharma, A.Reddy, D.S.

(2018) J. Med. Chem. 61: 5664-5678

  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b00565
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • The dependence of drug potency on diastereomeric configurations is a key facet. Using a novel general divergent synthetic route for a three-chiral center antimalarial natural product cladosporin, we built its complete library of stereoisomers (cladol ...

    The dependence of drug potency on diastereomeric configurations is a key facet. Using a novel general divergent synthetic route for a three-chiral center antimalarial natural product cladosporin, we built its complete library of stereoisomers (cladologs) and assessed their inhibitory potential using parasite-, enzyme-, and structure-based assays. We show that potency is manifest via tetrahyropyran ring conformations that are housed in the ribose binding pocket of parasite lysyl tRNA synthetase (KRS). Strikingly, drug potency between top and worst enantiomers varied 500-fold, and structures of KRS-cladolog complexes reveal that alterations at C3 and C10 are detrimental to drug potency whereas changes at C3 are sensed by rotameric flipping of glutamate 332. Given that scores of antimalarial and anti-infective drugs contain chiral centers, this work provides a new foundation for focusing on inhibitor stereochemistry as a facet of antimicrobial drug development.


    Organizational Affiliation

    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.,Medicinal Chemistry & Drug Discovery, Department of Pharmacology , University of Oxford , Mansfield Road , Oxford OX1 3QT , U.K.,Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 ckerfeld@lbl.gov.,Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.,School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, and Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072, QLD, Australia.,Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.,Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea.,Cells-in-Motion Cluster of Excellence, University of Muenster, 48149, Muenster, Germany.,Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, 0316, Oslo, Norway. Magnus.Jakobsson@cpr.ku.dk.,Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, 450 Vojvode Stepe, 11000, Belgrade, Serbia.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. doudna@berkeley.edu.,Laboratory of Molecular Design and Drug Discovery, School of Science, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009, China; State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Discovery for Metabolic Disease, Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009, China.,Experimental Therapeutics Centre, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A(∗)STAR), 31 Biopolis way, Nanos, #03-01, Singapore 138669, Singapore. Electronic address: cbkang@etc.a-star.edu.sg.,Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Kouto, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan. yshiro@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp sawai@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp.,Department of Pharmacy, Epigenetic Med Chem Lab, University of Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084, Fisciano, SA, Italy.,National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Moscow 123182, Russia. nikolaeva_ay@nrcki.ru.,Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 9, 27100, Pavia, Italy.,Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA. andy.ellington@mail.utexas.edu.,Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ, 08854-5627, USA.,Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.,the School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom.,From the Department of Immunology, University of Oslo and Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, 0372 Oslo, Norway.,Department of Structural Cell Biology, Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany.,Worldwide Influenza Centre, Francis Crick Institute, NW1 1AT London, United Kingdom.,Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.,Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Therapeutic Modalities, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F.Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Grenzacherstrasse 124, 4070, Basel, Switzerland.,Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States; Vahlteich Medicinal Chemistry Core, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States.,From the Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and.,Molecular and Structural Biology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India. Electronic address: ashish_arora@cdri.res.in.,Laboratori de Química Farmacèutica (Unitat Associada al CSIC), Facultat de Farmàcia i Ciències de l'Alimentació, and Institute of Biomedicine (IBUB) , Universitat de Barcelona , Av. Joan XXIII s/n , Barcelona E-08028 , Spain.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm SE-106 91, Sweden.,Science for Life Laboratory, Division of Translational Medicine and Chemical Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, 171 21 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: thomas.helleday@scilifelab.se.,Institut Européen de Chimie et Biologie, University of Bordeaux, Pessac, France. r.fronzes@iecb.u-bordeaux.fr.,Innovative Genomics Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.,Department of Polar Sciences, University of Science and Technology, Incheon, Korea.,Department of Biochemistry and Center for Excellence in Protein and Enzyme Technology Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand. Electronic address: danaya.pak@mahidol.ac.th.,Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya Street 16/10, Moscow 117997, Russian Federation.,Genetics and Genomic Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom.,Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. lss8@columbia.edu.,Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.,Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Andrew_Kruse@hms.harvard.edu.,Department of Biochemistry, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. enogales@lbl.gov.,Laboratory of Biomolecular Research, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232, Villigen, Switzerland.,Structural Genomics Consortium , University of Oxford , Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive , Oxford OX3 7DQ , United Kingdom.,Dipartimento di Chimica Ugo Schiff, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Italy; Università degli Studi di Firenze, NEUROFARBA Dept., Sezione di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Via Ugo Schiff 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence), Italy.,the Institute of Infection and Immunity, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF14 4XN, Wales, United Kingdom.,Structure and Biophysics, Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Boston, USA; 35 Gatehouse Drive, Waltham, MA 02451, USA.,Infection and Immunity Program and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.,Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.,Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himeji, 671-2280, Japan.,Department of Pathology, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Cailun Road 1200, Pudong District, Shanghai, China.,Bayer AG, Drug Discovery, Pharmaceuticals, Lead Discovery Berlin, 13353, Berlin, Germany.,Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.,Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. enogales@lbl.gov.,a Department of Life Sciences , Korea University , Seongbuk-gu, Seoul , Republic of Korea.,Target Discovery Institute, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7FZ, UK.,Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, 31077, Toulouse, France.,Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Area, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139; michael.romanowski@novartis.com john.trauger@novartis.com.,MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK. scheres@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk.,From the Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, and mazurs@mail.nih.gov.,National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Moscow 123182, Russia. vpopov@inbi.ras.ru.,Infection and Immunity Program and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia. anthony.purcell@monash.edu nathan.croft@monash.edu.,Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.,Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering 210-41, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California, 91125, USA.,Fisheries and Oceans Hakodate, Hakodate, Japan.,Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.,Laboratoire d'Ingénierie des Systèmes Macromoléculaires, Institut de Microbiologie de la Méditerranée, UMR7255, Aix-Marseille Université - CNRS, Marseille, France. eric.durand@inserm.fr.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.,Laboratoire de Chimie des Processus Biologiques, Collège de France, 75005 Paris, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR8229, 75005 Paris, France.,Molecular Stethoscope , 10835 Road to the Cure #100 , San Diego , California 92121 , United States.,Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.,Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology, Institute for Diabetes and Metabolic Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0912, United States.,Neurobiology Division, Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.,Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Science , University of São Paulo , Avenida Prof. Lineu Prestes 1374 , 05508-900 São Paulo , Brazil.,Innovative Genomics Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. doudna@berkeley.edu.,Vanderbilt Mass Spectrometry Research Center and Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232.,Molecular Medicine.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, New York, NY 10038, USA; Institut de Biologie Structurale, Université Grenoble Alpes, CEA, CNRS, 38044 Grenoble, France. Electronic address: poignard@scripps.edu.,The Sainsbury Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.,Molecular & Materials Modelling group Data61, CSIRO, Docklands, Melbourne, 8012, VIC, Australia.,c Tumor Microenvironment Branch , Research Institute, National Cancer Center , Goyang , Republic of Korea.,Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, TU Dortmund University, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 4a, 44227, Dortmund, Germany.,the K. G. Jebsen Centre for Coeliac Disease Research, University of Oslo, 0424 Oslo, Norway.,Department of Molecular Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, 82152 Martinsried, Germany; baumeist@biochem.mpg.de.,Laboratory of Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry, Showa Pharmaceutical University , 3-3165 Higashi-Tamagawagakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543, Japan.,Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, The University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.,Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235.,School of Life Sciences, KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daehak-ro 80, Buk-ku, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea; KNU Institute for Microorganisms, Kyungpook National University, Daehak-ro 80, Buk-ku, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: kkim@knu.ac.kr.,Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Biotechnology, Sunmoon University, Asansi, Korea.,Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 9, 27100, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address: andrea.mattevi@unipv.it.,Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210009, China.,Equipe Communication Intercellulaire et Infections Microbiennes, Centre de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie (CIRB), Collège de France, 75005 Paris, France; INSERM U1050, 75005 Paris, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR7241, 75005 Paris, France; MEMOLIFE Laboratory of Excellence and Paris Science Lettres, 75005 Paris, France. Electronic address: guy.tran-van-nhieu@college-de-france.fr.,CSIR- Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad, 500007, India.,Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. bgraham@nih.gov.,Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.,Department of Systems and Computational Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461.,Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, China; Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Rd., Wuhan 430074, Hubei, China. Electronic address: hjzhang@hust.edu.cn.,Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Systems Biology,ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093, Switzerland.,Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA.,National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 9800 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States. Electronic address: yangs9@mail.nih.gov.,Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. kobilka@stanford.edu.,Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, 60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.,Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.,Institute of Infection and Immunity, Cardiff University School of Medicine,Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK.,RIKEN Harima Institute, SPring-8 Center, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, 679-5148, Japan. shibach@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp.,Department of Medical Biochemistry, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC, Leiden, The Netherlands.,Structural Biology Science Technology Platform, Francis Crick Institute, NW1 1AT London, United Kingdom.,S. Arthur Localio Laboratory, Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, 435 East 30th Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address: george.miller@nyumc.org.,Dipartimento di Chimica Ugo Schiff, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Italy; Università degli Studi di Firenze, NEUROFARBA Dept., Sezione di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Via Ugo Schiff 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence), Italy. Electronic address: claudiu.supuran@unifi.it.,Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461; johanna.daily@einstein.yu.edu vern.schramm@einstein.yu.edu.,Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany.,Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, EMB 03-07, 59 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 636921, Singapore; NTU Institute of Structural Biology, Nanyang Technological University, EMB 06-01, 59 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 636921, Singapore. Electronic address: luodahai@ntu.edu.sg.,Program in Biomolecular Pharmacology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.,Unidad de Biofisica, Centro Mixto Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (CSIC,UPV/EHU), Leioa, Bizkaia, Spain.,Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, China.,Synchrotron Light Research Institute (Public Organization), Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand.,Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research , 250 Massachusetts Avenue , Cambridge , Massachusetts 02139 , United States.,Laboratory of Genetically Encoded Small Molecules, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA.,Neurobiology Division, Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK. ig@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk hergueda@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biocomputing, Joint School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address: xu_yong@gibh.ac.cn.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Johannesburg, Aukland Park, 2006, South Africa.,Department of Picobiology, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, 678-1297, Japan. shibach@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp.,Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.,Japan Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Nagoya, Japan.,School of Pharmacy, University College London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London, WC1N 1AX, United Kingdom.,Key Laboratory of RNA Biology, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.,Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. nzheng@uw.edu.,d Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences , Graduate School , Seongbuk-gu, Seoul , Republic of Korea.,Department of Biological Sciences and Centre for Bioimaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore.,Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.,Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.,Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himeji, 671-2280, Japan. negoro@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp.,Department of Pharmacology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210 United States. Electronic address: ghoshd@upstate.edu.,Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.,CNRS UMR 5234 Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité, Paris, France.,Proteomics Program, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research (NNF-CPR), University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200, Copenhagen, Denmark. Jesper.Olsen@cpr.ku.dk.,Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.,Monogram Biosciences Inc., San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.,Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461; johanna.daily@einstein.yu.edu vern.schramm@einstein.yu.edu.,Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address: jiang@scripps.edu.,Discovery Chemistry, Merck & Co., Inc., 2015 Galloping Hill Rd, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, United States. Electronic address: sobhana.babu.boga@merck.com.,State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yueyang Road, Shanghai, 200031, P.R. China.,Institute of Food Science, CNR, Via Roma, 64 Avellino, Italy.,Department of Early Discovery Biochemistry, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA. hannoush.rami@gene.com.,Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA. dtaylor@utexas.edu.,Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Insititute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; The Joint Center for Structural Genomics, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center and the Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.,Michigan State University-U.S. Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824.,Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, 3086, VIC, Australia. b.heras@latrobe.edu.au.,Vancouver Prostate Centre, University of British Columbia, 2660 Oak Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6H 3Z6, Canada.,Institute for Molecular Bioscience , The University of Queensland , Brisbane , QLD 4072 , Australia.,Laboratory of Molecular Design and Drug Discovery, School of Science, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009, China.,Department of Biochemistry , University of Cambridge , 80 Tennis Court Road , Cambridge CB2 1GA , U.K.,Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan.,NSLS, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 75 Brookhaven Avenue, Building 725D, Upton, NY 11973-5000, USA.,Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Brazil.,Abide Therapeutics , 10835 Road to the Cure, Suite 250 , San Diego , California 92121 , United States.,Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Laboratorio de Agrobiotecnología, Tecnoparque CLQ, Universidad de Colima, Carretera Los Limones-Loma de Juárez, 28629 Colima, Colima, Mexico. Electronic address: hserrano0@ucol.mx.,Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA.,Chemical Genomics Research Group, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Saitama, Japan.,Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, 0316, Oslo, Norway. Pal.Falnes@ibv.uio.no.,The Joint Center for Structural Genomics, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.,Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.,Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam, India. Electronic address: spkanaujia@iitg.ac.in.,Department of Therapeutic Discovery, Amgen Discovery Research, Amgen Inc., 360 Binney Street, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA.,High Throughput Analysis Laboratory and Department of Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, Chicago, 60208, IL, USA.,Fachbereich Chemie, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Strasse 4, 35043, Marburg, Germany.,John Innes Centre , Norwich , U.K.,Chemistry, Oncology, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Boston, USA; 35 Gatehouse Drive, Waltham, MA 02451, USA.,The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037.,Department of Chemistry , University of Pennsylvania , 231 South 34th Street , Philadelphia , Pennsylvania 19104 , United States.,Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia. Jamie.rossjohn@monash.edu.,INDS Inc. , 6111 Jackson Road, Suite 100 , Ann Arbor , Michigan 48103 , United States.,From the Ocean and Earth Sciences, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton SO14 3ZH, United Kingdom.,Program in Biomolecular Pharmacology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. drkallen@bu.edu.,Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany.,Faculty of Chemistry, Philipps-University Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Straße 4, 35032, Marburg, Germany.,Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.,Macromolecular X-ray Crystallography Core, Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL 33458, USA.,Proteomics Program, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research (NNF-CPR), University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.,Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.,Institute of Infection and Immunity, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XN, UK. Jamie.rossjohn@monash.edu.,Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA.,Department of Chemistry, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, QB3 Institute , University of California-Berkeley , 374B Stanley Hall , Berkeley , California 94720-3220 , United States.,Division of Structural Studies, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom.,Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480, Japan.,Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, Brazil.,Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, United Kingdom.,Department of Biosystems and Bioengineering, KRIBB School of Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 34113, Republic of Korea.,Maurice Wilkins Centre, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand p.young@auckland.ac.nz n.moreland@auckland.ac.nz.,Cell Adhesion Laboratory, Department of Integrative Structural & Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL 33458, USA.,Molecular and Structural Biology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.,Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, and Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA. h.w.liu@mail.utexas.edu.,Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.,Department of Drug Chemistry and Technologies, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le A. Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy.,Institute of Organic Chemistry, Justus-Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 17, 35392, Giessen, Germany.,Departamento de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de México, Mexico. Electronic address: sersan@biomedicas.unam.mx.,Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 13, 56124 Pisa, Italy. chiara.gabbiani@unipi.it.,Structural Biology of Cells and Viruses Laboratory, Francis Crick Institute, NW1 1AT London, United Kingdom.,RIKEN Harima Institute, SPring-8 Center, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, 679-5148, Japan.,Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.,Laboratory of Extremophiles Biology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland. magdalena.plotka@biol.ug.edu.pl.,Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA, USA. doudna@berkeley.edu.,Department of Chemistry and Technologies of Drugs, Sapienza University of Rome, P. le A. Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy; Center for Life Nano Science@Sapienza, Italian Institute of Technology, Via Regina Elena 291, 00161, Rome, Italy.,Hain Lifescience GmbH, D-72147, Nehren, Germany.,Bioorganic Chemistry, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.,Institute of Cancer Research , 15 Cotswold Road , Sutton , Surrey SM2 5NG , United Kingdom.,Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Therapeutic Modalities, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F.Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Grenzacherstrasse 124, 4070, Basel, Switzerland. roger.dawson@roche.com.,Department of Biochemistry and Groupe de Recherche Axé sur la Structure des Protéines, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3G 0B1, Canada. Electronic address: bhushan.nagar@mcgill.ca.,State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Life Science, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.,Experimental Therapeutics Centre, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A(∗)STAR), 31 Biopolis way, Nanos, #03-01, Singapore 138669, Singapore; Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, EMB 03-07, 59 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 636921, Singapore. Electronic address: knacro@etc.a-star.edu.sg.,Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 9, 27100, Pavia, Italy; Department of Mechanistic Cell Biology, Max-Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Otto-Hahn-Str. 11, 44227, Dortmund, Germany.,the Laboratories of Molecular Biology and.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; Mortimer B. Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: rsm10@columbia.edu.,Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.,State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.,Department of Urology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai, 200127, China.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. zhangyy@simm.ac.cn.,Department of Therapeutic Discovery, Amgen Discovery Research, Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, CA, 91320, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, 3086, Australia.,Neuprozyme Therapeutics A/S, 2970 Hörsholm, Denmark. Electronic address: jp@neuprozyme.com.,Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA. andy.ellington@mail.utexas.edu.,Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin 300308, China.,Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology , University of Bath , Claverton Down , Bath BA2 7AY , U.K.,RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan.,School of Pharmacy, University College London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London, WC1N 1AX, United Kingdom. Electronic address: f.kozielski@ucl.ac.uk.,US Army Research Laboratory - South, Austin, TX, USA.,Civil and Environmental Engineering.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. nzheng@uw.edu.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.,the Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.,From the Department of Immunology, University of Oslo and Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, 0372 Oslo, Norway, l.m.sollid@medisin.uio.no.,School of Medical Science, and Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, 4222, QLD, Australia.,National Research Center for Veterinary Medicine, Luoyang, Henan, China.,ConverGene LLC., 3093 Beverly Lane, Unit C, Cambridge, MD 21613, United States.,Experimental Therapeutics Centre, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A(∗)STAR), 31 Biopolis way, Nanos, #03-01, Singapore 138669, Singapore.,Cornell Lab for Accelerator-based Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853.,Molecular Medicine Group , International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) , New Delhi 110067 , India.,Departamento de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de México, Mexico.,Neuroscience Therapeutic Area, Neurodegeneration Research, Sanofi R&D, Chilly-Mazarin, France.,Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Karnataka, India.,Center for Integrative Proteomics Research, Rutgers State University, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center and the Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.,Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854-8020, USA.,Institute for Research in Biomedicine, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland.,Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, 10065, USA.,Institute for Advanced Study and Center of Integrated Protein Science, Department Chemie , Technische Universität München , Lichtenbergstrasse 4 , 85747 Garching , Germany.,Unit of Polar Genomics, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, Korea.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry , University of Notre Dame , Notre Dame , Indiana 46556 , United States.,Department of Biophysics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China; Institute of Systems Biomedicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Tumor Systems Biology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China. Electronic address: yunch@hsc.pku.edu.cn.,the Department of Gastroenterology, Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, 0372 Oslo, Norway, and.,Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, 0316, Oslo, Norway.,Division of Gene Regulation and Expression, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, U.K. dmfvanaalten@dundee.ac.uk.,Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1258/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UMR7104/Université de Strasbourg, 67404, Illkirch, France. Electronic address: rochel@igbmc.fr.,Discovery Chemistry, Merck & Co., Inc., 33 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, United States.,Department of Biochemistry and Groupe de Recherche Axé sur la Structure des Protéines, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3G 0B1, Canada.,Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.,Humabs BioMed SA, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland.,Synthetic Biology and Bioengineering Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea. sglee@kribb.re.kr.,School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, and Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072, QLD, Australia. m.schembri@uq.edu.au.,Laboratory for Epigenetics Drug Discovery, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR), 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. shin.sato@riken.jp.,Leicester Institute of Structural and Chemical Biology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.,Structural Biology of Disease Processes Laboratory, Francis Crick Institute, NW1 1AT London, United Kingdom; Donald.Benton@crick.ac.uk Peter.Rosenthal@crick.ac.uk John.Skehel@crick.ac.uk.,Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, Heidelberg University, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.,IRCCS SDN, 80143 Napoli, Italy.,the Infection and Immunity Program and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute and.,Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, 2185 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z4, Canada.,Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR7104, Illkirch, France.,Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA.,Department of Integrated Biomedical and Life Sciences, Graduate School, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.,Laboratory of Chromatin Structure and Function, Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.,Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, 1700 4th Street, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.,Department of Biological Chemistry, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095.,Smartox Biotechnology, Saint-Egrève, France.,Department of Chemistry , University of Warwick , Coventry CV4 7AL , U.K.,Department of Chemistry and Life Science, School of Advanced Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015, Japan. matz@cc.kogakuin.ac.jp.,Department of Life Science and Biochemical Engineering, Sunmoon University, Asansi, Korea.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry , University of Arizona , Tucson , Arizona 85721 , United States.,Max-Planck-Institute for Biochemistry, Planegg, Germany.,Chemical & Physical Biology Program, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235; james.crowe@vanderbilt.edu jens.meiler@vanderbilt.edu.,Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.,Integrated Drug Discovery-High Content Biology, Sanofi R&D, Vitry-sur-Seine, France.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland Ltd., Espoo, Finland.,Division of Translational Medicine, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509.,Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147; tgonen@ucla.edu.,Department of Therapeutic Discovery, Amgen Discovery Research, Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, CA, 91320, USA. lesm@amgen.com.,School of Life Sciences and Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Structural Biology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230027, People's Republic of China.,Department of Biophysics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China; Institute of Systems Biomedicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Tumor Systems Biology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191, China.,Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, CNR, Via Mezzocannone 16, I-80134 Napoli, Italy.,a Centre of Advanced Study in Crystallography and Biophysics , University of Madras, Guindy Campus , Chennai , Tamil Nadu , India.,Laboratory of Biomolecular Research, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232, Villigen, Switzerland.,Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, 1700 4th Street, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.,Alchemical Dynamics s.r.l., 00125, Rome, Italy.,School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, China.,Department of Molecular Biology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA.,Primmune Therapeutics, Inc. , 3210 Merryfield Row , San Diego , California 92121 , United States.,Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiao Hong Shan No.44, Wuhan 430071, China. Electronic address: huaidongzhang@yahoo.com.,the Departments of Biochemistry.,School of Chemistry , The University of Manchester , 131 Princess Street , Manchester , M1 7DN , UK . Email: jason.micklefield@manchester.ac.uk.,Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences and Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennesse 37831.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. lss8@columbia.edu.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 672, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.,Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Aashish.Manglik@ucsf.edu.,Biointerfaces Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.,Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Institute of Lung Biology and Disease, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), 81377 Munich, Germany; Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, 82152 Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.,Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA. enogales@lbl.gov.,Department of Chemistry, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. drkallen@bu.edu.,Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.,Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering , University of Colorado , Boulder , Colorado 80309 , United States.,Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1258/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UMR7104/Université de Strasbourg, 67404, Illkirch, France. Electronic address: kieffer@igbmc.fr.,Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, 08826 Seoul, Republic of Korea.,Faculty of Life Sciences , The University of Manchester , 131 Princess Street , Manchester , M1 7DN , UK.,Discovery Biology, Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit , AstraZeneca , Gothenburg 43183 Sweden.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095.,Department of Microbiology, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, Netherlands.,School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China, No. 1266 Fujin Road, Chaoyang District, Changchun, Jilin 130021, China.,Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA stefanos.sarafianos@emory.edu olson@scripps.edu.,CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Drug Discovery and Design Center, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address: ycxu@simm.ac.cn.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1GA, England.,Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Aashish.Manglik@ucsf.edu.,Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Insititute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center and the Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.,Biotherapeutic and Analytical Technologies, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139.,Science for Life Laboratory, Division of Translational Medicine and Chemical Biology, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, 171 21 Stockholm, Sweden.,Simons Electron Microscopy Center, New York Structural Biology Center, The National Resource for Automated Molecular Microscopy, New York, NY, USA.,the Infection and Immunity Program and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute and Jamie.rossjohn@monash.edu.,From the Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom.,Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai, 200433, P.R. China.,Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia. kmi@ibch.ru.,Integrative Omics, Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA.,Laboratory of Extremophiles Biology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland. tadeusz.kaczorowski@biol.ug.edu.pl.,Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA. doudna@berkeley.edu.,Institute of Microbiology, v.v.i , Czech Academy of Sciences , Prague 4 , 142 20 , Czech Republic.,Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, 80-308 Gdansk, Poland.,Michael DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada L8S 4K1; Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada L8S 4L8.,Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.,Cell Biology Lab, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India.,National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Moscow 123182, Russia. kmb@inbi.ras.ru.,Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts.,Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai, 201203, China.,Australian Synchrotron, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, VIC, 3168, Australia.,Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.,Infection and Immunity Program and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.,MedImmune LLC, Gaithersburg, MD 20878.,Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara, 630-0192, Japan. Electronic address: ttsukazaki@mac.com.,Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037.,Laboratory of Molecular Design and Drug Discovery, School of Science, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009, China; State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Discovery for Metabolic Disease, Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address: lutao@cpu.edu.cn.,State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Life Science, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China. nsxia@xmu.edu.cn.,Infection and Immunity Program and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia. Jamie.rossjohn@monash.edu.,Department of Molecular Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, 82152 Martinsried, Germany.,Department of Neuroscience, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.,Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. bh6@cumc.columbia.edu.,pRED, Therapeutic Modalities, F. Hoffmann-La Roche, 4070 Basel, Switzerland.,Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, 10065, USA.,Department of Urology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai, 200127, China. hyrrenji2@aliyun.com.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry , Northern Illinois University , 1425 West Lincoln Highway , DeKalb , Illinois 60115 , United States.,Clayton Foundation Laboratories of Peptide Biology, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA.,Departament de Química Inorgànica i Orgànica (Secció de Química Orgànica) and Institut de Química Teòrica i Computacional (IQTC), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.,Immunology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY, 10065, USA.,Michael DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada L8S 4K1; Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada L8S 4L8. Electronic address: jwhitney@mcmaster.ca.,Department of Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.,Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, EMB 03-07, 59 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 636921, Singapore; NTU Institute of Structural Biology, Nanyang Technological University, EMB 06-01, 59 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 636921, Singapore; School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 636921, Singapore.,Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Area, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139.,Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.,Laboratory of Genetically Encoded Small Molecules, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA. sbrady@rockefeller.edu.,Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Stephanie_dougan@dfci.harvard.edu mbirnb@mit.edu.,Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin 300308, China; School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.,Department of Chemistry, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.,Centre of Advanced Study in Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, India. Electronic address: gunaunom@gmail.com.,State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Changping District, Beijing 102206, China; Health Science Center, Peking University, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China; School of Medicine, Nankai University, Nankai District, Tianjin 300071, China. Electronic address: yshao@bjmu.edu.cn.,School of Biological Sciences , University of East Anglia , Norwich Research Park , Norwich NR4 7TJ , U.K.,Structural Biology of Disease Processes Laboratory, Francis Crick Institute, NW1 1AT London, United Kingdom.,Department of Therapeutic Discovery, Amgen Discovery Research, Amgen Inc., 1120 Veterans Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.,Centre of Advanced Study in Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, India.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, CH-8057, Zurich, Switzerland.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address: caflisch@bioc.uzh.ch.,School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.,Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, and Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.,Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts. Stephanie_dougan@dfci.harvard.edu mbirnb@mit.edu.,Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime, 790-8566, Japan.,Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 christine.m.dunham@emory.edu.,Interfaculty Institute of Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, D-72076, Tübingen, Germany.,Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Nara, 630-0192, Japan.,Biochemical Sciences Division , CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory , Dr. Homi Bhabha Road , Pune 411008 , India.,California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.,Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.,Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA. gouauxe@ohsu.edu.,Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Research Center of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071, Russia. vpopov@inbi.ras.ru.,Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. imper@mit.edu.,Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.,Michigan Drug Discovery, Life Sciences Institute , University of Michigan , 210 Washtenaw Avenue , Ann Arbor , Michigan 48103 , United States.,Beryllium Discovery Corp. , 7869 NE Day Road West , Bainbridge Island , Washington 98110 , United States.,Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome, Italy; Gene Expression Laboratory, National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani" I.R.C.C.S., Rome, Italy; Pasteur Institute - Cenci Bolognetti Foundation, Sapienza Università di Roma, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome, Italy.,Department of Plant Biology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA.,Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, 08826 Seoul, Republic of Korea.,Zuckerman Mind, Brain and Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. bh6@cumc.columbia.edu.,Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, CNR, Via Mezzocannone 16, I-80134 Napoli, Italy. Electronic address: luigi.vitagliano@unina.it.,Department of Plant and Microbiology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Center for Excellence in Protein and Enzyme Technology Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.,Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.,Department of Biophysics, Ruhr University Bochum, 44801 Bochum, Germany.,Institut Pasteur, Structural Bioinformatics Unit, Department of Structural Biology and Chemistry, CNRS UMR 3528, C3BI USR 3756, Paris, France.,Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia. nlklyachko@gmail.com.,Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.,Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA. andy.ellington@mail.utexas.edu.,Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, 4002 Basel, Switzerland.,Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Committee on Higher Degrees in Biophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address: mlbulyk@genetics.med.harvard.edu.,Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.,Maurice Wilkins Centre, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.,Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Center for Biomolecular Therapeutics (CBT), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.,Polaris Pharmaceuticals , 9373 Towne Centre Drive #150 , San Diego , California 92121 , United States.,University of Auckland, Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand.,State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, Shanghai Science Research Center, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210, China. Electronic address: huangy@sibcb.ac.cn.,Computational and Systems Biology, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA.,College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.,Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden.,MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK. mg@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.,Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam, India.,Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.,Neuprozyme Therapeutics A/S, 2970 Hörsholm, Denmark.,Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, 60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.,Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.,Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases, Hudson Institute of Medical Research and Department of Molecular and Translational Science, School of Clinical Science, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.,Department of Crystallography and Structural Biology , Institute of Physical Chemistry "Rocasolano," CSIC , 28006 Madrid , Spain.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biocomputing, Joint School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.,Molecular Partners AG, Wagistrasse 14, 8952, Schlieren, Switzerland. info@molecularpartners.com.,Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, The Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, England.,Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, 30303, USA.,State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.,USR 2000, CNRS, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.,Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, 08826 Seoul, Republic of Korea; sangryu@snu.ac.kr hanc210@snu.ac.kr.,Department of Bioscience, Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime, 790-8566, Japan; Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime, 790-8566, Japan.,Departamento de Medicina Molecular y Bioprocesos, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 2001, 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.,Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA. elizabeth.campbell@rockefeller.edu.,Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, 20 North Pine Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, United States.,the Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom, and.,Department of Biochemistry, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, 27710, USA. seok-yong.lee@duke.edu.,Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin 300308, China. Electronic address: guo_rt@tib.cas.cn.,Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.,Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.,Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.,Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 239 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai, 201204, P.R. China.,Committee on Higher Degrees in Biophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Cancer Biology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Electronic address: stephen_blacklow@hms.harvard.edu.,Program in Biophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.,Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: ymkim@konkuk.ac.kr.,Skryabin Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology, Moscow 109472, Russia. grenom96@yandex.ru.,Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Illkirch, France.,Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232.,Institute of Structural Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.,European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble, France.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. robert.gustafsson@dbb.su.se.,Department of Therapeutic Discovery, Amgen Discovery Research, Amgen Inc., 1120 Veterans Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA. zwang@amgen.com.,From the Wisconsin Energy Institute, tdonohue@bact.wisc.edu.,Bayer AG, division Crop Science, Alfred-Nobel-Strasse 50, 40789, Monheim am Rhein, Germany.,Biomolecular Chemistry, and.,MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.,Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.,CNRS UMR 5234 Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité, Paris, France. r.fronzes@iecb.u-bordeaux.fr.,Manchester Institute of Biotechnology , The University of Manchester , 131 Princess Street , Manchester , M1 7DN , UK.,S. Arthur Localio Laboratory, Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, 435 East 30th Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10016, USA.,Institut du Thorax, Inserm UMR 1087/CNRS UMR 6291, LabEx "Ion Channels, Science and Therapeutics", Nantes, France.,Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.,Genome-based BioIT Convergence Institute, Asansi, Korea.,QB3 Institute , University of California-Berkeley , 356 Stanley Hall , Berkeley , California 94720-3220 , United States.,Michael DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada L8S 4K1; Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada L8S 4L8; Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada L8S 4K1.,Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain.,Celgene Quanticel Research, 10300 Campus Point Drive, Suite 100, San Diego, CA 92121, United States.,Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE, UK.,Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. doudna@berkeley.edu.,Institute for Glycomics , Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus , Queensland 4222 , Australia.,Department of Biosystems and Bioengineering, KRIBB School of Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 34113, Republic of Korea. sglee@kribb.re.kr.,INSERM, UMR 1100, "Centre d'Etude des Pathologies Respiratoires", 37032 Tours, France; Université de Tours, 37032 Tours, France. Electronic address: brice.korkmaz@inserm.fr.,State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Life Science, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China. shaowei@xmu.edu.cn.,Celgene Quanticel Research, 10300 Campus Point Drive, Suite 100, San Diego, CA 92121, United States. Electronic address: jbetancort@celgene.com.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biocomputing, Joint School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, China, No. 1266 Fujin Road, Chaoyang District, Changchun, Jilin 130021, China.,Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.,Molecular and Cellular Modeling Group, Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS), 69118, Heidelberg, Germany.,Department of Urology, Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology and Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.,Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology , University of California, San Francisco , San Francisco , California 94143 , United States.,Discovery Chemistry, Merck & Co., Inc., 2015 Galloping Hill Rd, Kenilworth, NJ 07033, United States.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.,Laboratory of Biomolecular Research, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232, Villigen, Switzerland. kurt.ballmer-hofer@unibas.ch.,Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461.,IGA Bio Research, Sakai, Osaka 590-0004, Japan.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z3, Canada.,Equipe Communication Intercellulaire et Infections Microbiennes, Centre de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie (CIRB), Collège de France, 75005 Paris, France; INSERM U1050, 75005 Paris, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR7241, 75005 Paris, France; MEMOLIFE Laboratory of Excellence and Paris Science Lettres, 75005 Paris, France.,From the Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, NCI, and.,Department of Biomolecular Resources, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA.,the Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, and.,Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. epuglisi@stanford.edu.,Chemistry and Chemical Biology Graduate Program , University of California, San Francisco , San Francisco , California 94143 , United States.,Drug Safety and Metabolism, IMED Biotech Unit , AstraZeneca , Gothenburg 43183 Sweden.,Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.,Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.,Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Committee on Higher Degrees in Biophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.,Brigham and Women's Hospital Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.,State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China; Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes du CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.,Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome, Italy; Gene Expression Laboratory, National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani" I.R.C.C.S., Rome, Italy.,Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.,Mass Spectrometry for Biology Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.,Integrated Drug Discovery-Synthetic Molecular Design, Sanofi R&D, Frankfurt, Germany.,From the Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and Molecular Medicine, rac1@cornell.edu.,the Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom, and Ivo.Tews@soton.ac.uk.,Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.,Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy and Biophysics Graduate Program, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR) , New Delhi 110025 , India.,Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai, 201203, China. zhangyy@simm.ac.cn.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, New York, NY 10038, USA.,Seed Compounds Exploratory Unit for Drug Discovery Platform, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Saitama, Japan.,Laboratory for Epigenetics Drug Discovery, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR), 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. takashi.umehara@riken.jp.,Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry , University of California, San Francisco , San Francisco , California 94143 , United States.,National University of Singapore (Suzhou) Research Institute, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.,Structural Genomics Consortium, and Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5G 2M9, Canada.,Mechanistic Biology & Profiling, Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit , AstraZeneca , Gothenburg 43183 Sweden.,Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA. dtaylor@utexas.edu.,Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, 30303, USA. cbasler@gsu.edu.,From the Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom ingrid.dreveny@nottingham.ac.uk.,Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.,Department of Pharmacy, G. D'Annunzio University of Chieti/Pescara, Via Dei Vestini 31, 66100, Chieti, Italy.,College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai, 210032, China.,Molecular Biophysics Group, Institute of Integrative Biology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. myzheng@simm.ac.cn.,Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. bh6@cumc.columbia.edu.,Pattern Recognition Receptor Discovery Performance Unit, Immuno-Inflammation Therapeutic Area, GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.,Department of Chemistry and Life Science, School of Advanced Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015, Japan. hashimoto@kanagawa-iri.jp.,Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Departamento de Bionanotecnología, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22800 Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico.,Department of Bio-organic Synthesis, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC, Leiden, The Netherlands.,Pattern Recognition Receptor Discovery Performance Unit, Immuno-Inflammation Therapeutic Area, GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA. Electronic address: john.j.bertin@gsk.com.,Life Sciences Institute, Departments of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States.,Department of Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Roskilde, Denmark.,Dept. of Protein Evolution, Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental Biology, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.,Vaccine Research Center, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.,Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Henry Wellcome Building, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 9HN, UK.,Department of Early Discovery Biochemistry, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA.,Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, 565-0871, Japan. mr0505@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp.,Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.,Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. jpcurtin@hku.hk.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-University Marburg, Marbacher Weg 6, 35032, Marburg, Germany.,School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.,Division of Gene Regulation and Expression, School of Life Sciences , University of Dundee , DD1 5EH Dundee , U.K.,School of Life Sciences and Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Structural Biology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230027, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: tangyj@ustc.edu.cn.,Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA.,Synthetic Biology and Bioengineering Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea.,Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de México, Mexico.,Department of Chemistry, University of York, York YO10 5DD, England.,Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA stefanos.sarafianos@emory.edu olson@scripps.edu.,e Department of Oral Biochemistry and Molecular BiologySchool of Dentistry , Kyung Hee University , Seoul , Republic of Korea.,Laboratoire d'Ingénierie des Systèmes Macromoléculaires , Institut de Microbiologie de la Méditerranée, UMR7255, INSERM, Marseille, France. eric.durand@inserm.fr.,Platform Technology and Science , GlaxoSmithKline , Stevenage , U.K.,Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. sylviegtsodikova@uky.edu.,Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. oleg.tsodikov@uky.edu.,Monash Centre for Data Science, Faculty of Information Technology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia.,Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. doudna@berkeley.edu.,Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.,Molcentrics, Inc. , 11835 Carmel Mountain Road #1304-110 , San Diego , California 92128 , United States.,Department of Mathematics, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA.,Zymeworks Inc, 540-1385 West 8th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V6H 3V9, Canada.,School of Life Sciences and Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Structural Biology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230027, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: zcz@ustc.edu.cn.,Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.,Department of Structural Biology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA.,Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Kouto, Kamigori, Ako, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan.,Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1, Canada.,Chemistry, Oncology, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Boston, USA; 35 Gatehouse Drive, Waltham, MA 02451, USA. Electronic address: lakshmaiah.gingipalli@astrazeneca.com.,Max Planck Research Group for RNA Biology, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, 48149, Muenster, Germany.,Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Shanghai, 201203, China. myzheng@simm.ac.cn.,University of Florida College of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gainesville, FL, USA.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461.,Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, 565-0871, Japan.,Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. sudha.chakrapani@case.edu.,Structural Genomics Consortium, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: stenmark@dbb.su.se.,Department of Chemistry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstrasse 7, 45117, Essen, Germany.,Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States; Vahlteich Medicinal Chemistry Core, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. Electronic address: showalh@umich.edu.,School of Pharmacy, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Avenue West, Guangzhou 510632, China.,Division of Biological Sciences, Poornaprajna Institute of Scientific Research, Bangalore, India.,Developmental Biology and Cancer Programmes, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.,Synsight, Évry, France.,Global Discovery Chemistry, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139.,Department of Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095.,Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9ST, UK.,Global Discovery Chemistry, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 4002 Basel, Switzerland.,Institute of Immunology, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China. wei.liu.2005@gmail.com.,Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center and the Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.,Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, 2234, NSW, Australia.,Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, United States.,Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. geoffrey.masuyer@dbb.su.se.,Zuckerman Mind, Brain and Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.,Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139.,School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia. jforwood@csu.edu.au.,Laboratory of Molecular Electron Microscopy, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.,Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701, South Korea. chahong@korea.ac.kr.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; Mortimer B. Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: bh6@columbia.edu.,Department of Biochemistry , McGill University , Montréal , Québec H3G 0B1 , Canada.,Laboratoire d'Ingénierie des Systèmes Macromoléculaires, Institut de Microbiologie de la Méditerranée, UMR7255, Aix-Marseille Université - CNRS, Marseille, France.,Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.,Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, KS, USA.,leadXpro AG, PARK INNOVAARE, 5234, Villigen, Switzerland.,eFFECTOR Therapeutics , 11180 Roselle Street , San Diego , California 92121 , United States.,Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.,Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232.,From the Structural and Functional Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, Delhi 110067, India and.,Computer Aided Drug Design Center, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.,Centro Nazionale per il Controllo e la Valutazione dei Farmaci, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161, Rome, Italy.,Department of Mathematics, University of Leipzig, 04109 Leipzig, Germany.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.,California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. enogales@lbl.gov.,Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie der Universität Heidelberg, DKFZ-ZMBH Alliance, Heidelberg University, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.,Institut de Química Computacional i Catalisi and Departament de Química, Universitat de Girona, Girona, Spain.,Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. ben.davis@chem.ox.ac.uk.,Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri, USA.,Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Monash University, Melbourne, 3800, VIC, Australia.,Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA.,Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA. tatiana.kutateladze@ucdenver.edu.,Tetra Discovery Partners, Inc. , 38 Fulton Street West , Grand Rapids , Michigan 49503 , United States.,Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720.,Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.,Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Laboratorio de Agrobiotecnología, Tecnoparque CLQ, Universidad de Colima, Carretera Los Limones-Loma de Juárez, 28629 Colima, Colima, Mexico. Electronic address: scenteno0@ucol.mx.,Ipsen Bioinnovation, 102 Park Drive, Milton Park, Abingdon OX14 4RY, UK.,SARomics Biostructures, 223 63 Lund, Sweden.,School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.,Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706.,State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yueyang Road, Shanghai, 200031, P.R. China. hyhu@sibcb.ac.cn.,Division of Translational Medicine, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509; Rajendra.Agrawal@health.ny.gov.,School of Stomatology and Medicine, Foshan University, Foshan, Guangdong, 528000, China.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.,Japan Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Nagoya, Japan. kabe@cespi.nagoya-u.ac.jp.,State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, Shanghai Science Research Center, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Andrology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210, China.,Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology , University of Guelph , Guelph , Ontario N1G 2W1 , Canada.,Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA. dtaylor@utexas.edu.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.,Discipline of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), Westville, Durban, 4001, South Africa.,Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, NY.,Department of Biochemistry and Center for Excellence in Protein and Enzyme Technology Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand; School of Biomolecular Science and Engineering, Vidyasirimedhi Institute of Science and Technology (VISTEC), Rayong, 21210, Thailand.,Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC) CEA, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, France. philippe.minard@u-psud.fr.,Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome, Italy.,Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147.,National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 9800 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States.,Division of Gene Regulation and Expression, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, U.K.,State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, School of Life Science, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China. tcheng@xmu.edu.cn.,Service d'Ingénierie Moléculaire des Protéines (SIMOPRO), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.,Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC) CEA, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, France.,Cellular and Structural Physiology Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. kabe@cespi.nagoya-u.ac.jp.,Laboratório de Avaliação e Síntese de Substâncias Bioativas (LASSBio), Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, CEP, 21941-902, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.,Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1258/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), UMR7104/Université de Strasbourg, 67404, Illkirch, France.,The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047, Japan.,Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA.,Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.,National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. dcwang@ibp.ac.cn.,Department of Molecular Oncology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA.,Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7FZ, UK.,Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia. mm_shn@mail.ru.,CSIR- Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad, 500007, India. Electronic address: madhu@ccmb.res.in.,Structural Biology of Cells and Viruses Laboratory, Francis Crick Institute, NW1 1AT London, United Kingdom; Donald.Benton@crick.ac.uk Peter.Rosenthal@crick.ac.uk John.Skehel@crick.ac.uk.,Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.,Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia. sykilinda@mail.ru.,Department of Chemistry and Technologies of Drugs, Sapienza University of Rome, P. le A. Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy; Pasteur Institute - Cenci Bolognetti Foundation, Sapienza Università di Roma, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome, Italy. Electronic address: antonello.mai@uniroma1.it.,Institute of Informatics, Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.,the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899.,Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, CNR, Via Mezzocannone 16, I-80134 Napoli, Italy. Electronic address: alessia.ruggiero@unina.it.,Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences , University at Buffalo, The State University of New York , Buffalo , New York 14214-8033 , United States.,Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.,Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. joonyoon@ewha.ac.kr.,Institute of Biomedical Sciences , Academia Sinica , Taipei 11529 , Taiwan.,Centre of Advanced Study in Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, India. Electronic address: nandhanu@gmail.com.,Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biocomputing, Joint School of Life Sciences, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China.,Department of Bioscience, Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime, 790-8566, Japan; Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime, 790-8566, Japan; Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime, 790-8577, Japan. Electronic address: irab@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp.,Division of Malaria & Parasitic Disease, Korea National Institute of Health, Osong, 28159, Republic of Korea.,Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, EMB 03-07, 59 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 636921, Singapore; NTU Institute of Structural Biology, Nanyang Technological University, EMB 06-01, 59 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 636921, Singapore.,Institute of Genomics and Bioinformatics, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan.,Proteomics Program, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research (NNF-CPR), University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200, Copenhagen, Denmark. Magnus.Jakobsson@cpr.ku.dk.,Department of Urology, Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology and Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. sicai.zhang@childrens.harvard.edu.,Structure-Based Design, Inc. , 6048 Cornerstone Court West #D , San Diego , California 92121 , United States.,Fengnan District Hospital, Tangshan, 063300, China.,Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, Suita, Japan.,Chemistry.,Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada.,Medicinal Frontier Department , KNC Laboratories Company, Ltd. , 1-1-1 Murotani , Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2241 , Japan.,School of Biosystem and Biomedical Science, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.,Ipsen Innovation, 5 Avenue du Canada, 91940 Les Ulis, France.,Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing, P.R. China.,CeSPIA Inc., Tokyo, Japan.,Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.,Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.,CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Drug Discovery and Design Center, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 201203, China.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.,Chemical & Physical Biology Program, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235.,Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. stenmark@dbb.su.se.,Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland.,Center for Material Characterization , CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory , Dr. Homi Bhabha Road , Pune 411008 , India.,Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.,German Cancer Network (DKTK), Frankfurt/Mainz site, 60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.,Programa de Genómica Computacional, Centro de Ciencias Genómicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 2001, 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.,b Department of Cancer Biomedical Science , National Cancer Center Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy , Seongbuk-gu, Seoul , Republic of Korea.,Interfaculty Institute of Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, D-72076, Tübingen, Germany. thilo.stehle@uni-tuebingen.de.,Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5612, AZ, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.,Institut des Neurosciences Paris-Saclay (Neuro-PSI), UMR CNRS/Université Paris-Sud 9197, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.,Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, 37232, USA. thilo.stehle@uni-tuebingen.de.,Center for Food Safety and Toxicology, Seoul National University, 08826 Seoul, Republic of Korea.,Yale Cancer Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.,Pharma-Vation Consulting, LLC , 1201 Turnberry Ridge Court , Chesterfield , Missouri 63005 , United States.,Laboratory of Biochemical Pharmacology, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.,School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.,RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. shunichi.sekine@riken.jp kurumizaka@iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp.,Macromolecular Crystallography, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, 3168, VIC, Australia.,Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan.,Stratingh Institute for Chemistry, University of Groningen, 9747AG, Groningen, The Netherlands.,Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. kabe@cespi.nagoya-u.ac.jp.,Genome Integrity and Structural Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.,RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148, Japan.,National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 9800 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20850, United States. Electronic address: dave@NexusDA.com.,Department of Pharmacology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210 United States.,Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences & Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701, South Korea.,Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. bh6@cumc.columbia.edu.,Division of Molecular Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine , 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho , Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 , Japan.,Brigham and Women's Hospital Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. I.vanRhijn@uu.nl.,Department of Chemistry and Technologies of Drugs, Sapienza University of Rome, P. le A. Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy.,Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Research Center of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119071, Russia. kmb@inbi.ras.ru.,Laboratory of Extremophiles Biology, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.,Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project, Lusaka, Zambia.,University of Florida College of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address: rmckenna@ufl.edu.,Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.,CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Drug Discovery and Design Center, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai 201203, China; School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 200031, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, 1150 W Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan.,Institute for Pharmaceutical Microbiology, University of Bonn, D-53115, Bonn, Germany.,Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.,Institute of Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan.,Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. imper@mit.edu.,School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.,Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, São Paulo, Brazil.,Albany Molecular Research, Inc. , 21 Corporate Circle , Albany , New York 12203 , United States.,School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand p.young@auckland.ac.nz n.moreland@auckland.ac.nz.,Department of Pathology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA.,INSERM, UMR 1100, "Centre d'Etude des Pathologies Respiratoires", 37032 Tours, France; Université de Tours, 37032 Tours, France.,Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. sudha.chakrapani@case.edu.,Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. chajung@ewha.ac.kr.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; Mortimer B. Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.,Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584CL, Utrecht, The Netherlands. I.vanRhijn@uu.nl.,Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biochemistry and Technical Biochemistry, Stuttgart University, Allmandring 31, 70569, Stuttgart, Germany.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. bh6@cumc.columbia.edu.,White Global Pharma Consultants , 31 Kinglet Drive , South Cranbury , New Jersey 08512 , United States.,Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA.,the Department of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center.,School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, OR 97239, USA.,Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.,Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.,Department of Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. werner.kuehlbrandt@biophys.mpg.de t.meier@imperial.ac.uk.,Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, China; Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Rd., Wuhan 430074, Hubei, China.,State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Changping District, Beijing 102206, China.,Laboratory for Epigenetics Drug Discovery, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR), 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan. hideaki.niwa@riken.jp.,National Institute of Health, Centre for the Control and Evaluation of Medicines, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome, Italy.,The California NanoSystems Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.,Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 34134, Republic of Korea.,School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia.,Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.,Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. wyatt.yue@sgc.ox.ac.uk.,Dept. of Protein Evolution, Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental Biology, 72076 Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address: andrei.lupas@tuebingen.mpg.de.,Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, 3086, VIC, Australia.,Department of Urology, Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology and Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. min.dong@childrens.harvard.edu.,the Genome Center of Wisconsin, and.,Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7DQ, UK.,Program in Chemical Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States; Life Sciences Institute, Departments of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States.,Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA; Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.,Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland Joensuu Campus, Joensuu, Finland.,Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, The Nuffield Department of Medicine , University of Oxford , Oxford OX3 7BN , U.K.,Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322.,Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences , University of São Paulo , Prof. Lineu Prestes Avenue 580 , 05508-900 São Paulo , Brazil.,School of Life Sciences, KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daehak-ro 80, Buk-ku, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea; KNU Institute for Microorganisms, Kyungpook National University, Daehak-ro 80, Buk-ku, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zurich, Switzerland.,Department of Chemistry and Technologies of Drugs, Sapienza University of Rome, P. le A. Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy. Electronic address: sergio.valente@uniroma1.it.,Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre `Crystallography and Photonics' of Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospekt 59, Moscow 119333, Russian Federation.,National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.,Departments of Behavioral Medicine & Psychiatry and Physiology, Pharmacology & Neuroscience, Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute , West Virginia University Health Sciences Center , 1 Medical Center Drive , Morgantown , West Virginia 26506 , United States.,Therapeutic Discovery, Amgen Research , Amgen Inc. , 1120 Veterans Blvd , South San Francisco , California 94080 , United States.,Structural Studies Division, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.,Medicinal Chemistry, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, IMED Biotech Unit , AstraZeneca , Gothenburg 43183 Sweden.,Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139; michael.romanowski@novartis.com john.trauger@novartis.com.,Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Centre, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, Haryana 121001, India.,Biological Systems and Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720.,Heidelberg Graduate School of Mathematical and Computational Methods for the Sciences, Heidelberg University, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.,Oncternal Therapeutics , 3525 Del Mar Heights Road #821 , San Diego , California 92130 , United States.,Collection of Plasmids and Microorganisms, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.,School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address: zhangyonghui@tsinghua.edu.cn.,Department of Physiology and Biophysics , Albert Einstein College of Medicine , Bronx , New York 10461 , United States.,Institut Européen de Chimie et Biologie, University of Bordeaux, Pessac, France.,Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U964, Illkirch, France.,Organic Chemistry Division , CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory , Dr. Homi Bhabha Road , Pune 411008 , India.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Denver, Denver, CO, 80210, USA.,Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, 08826 Seoul, Republic of Korea.,Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.,From the Wisconsin Energy Institute.,Zuckerman Mind, Brain and Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. lss8@columbia.edu.,Cellular and Structural Physiology Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology and Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.,From the Structural and Functional Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, Delhi 110067, India and bbiswal@nii.ac.in.,Department of Picobiology, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, 678-1297, Japan.,Center for Epigenetics, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI, 49503, USA.,Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Campus , CH-4056 Basel , Switzerland.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.,Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584CL, Utrecht, The Netherlands.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Lysine-tRNA ligase
A, B
507Plasmodium falciparum (isolate NF54)Mutation(s): 0 
EC: 6.1.1.6
Find proteins for W7JP72 (Plasmodium falciparum (isolate NF54))
Go to UniProtKB:  W7JP72
Small Molecules
Ligands 4 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
CL
Query on CL

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
CHLORIDE ION
Cl
VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
LYS
Query on LYS

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
LYSINE
C6 H15 N2 O2
KDXKERNSBIXSRK-YFKPBYRVSA-O
 Ligand Interaction
9CU
Query on 9CU

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
(3R)-6,8-dihydroxy-3-{[(2R,6R)-6-methyloxan-2-yl]methyl}-3,4-dihydro-1H-2-benzopyran-1-one
C16 H20 O5
WOMKDMUZNBFXKG-OASPWFOLSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
MPO
Query on MPO

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A
3[N-MORPHOLINO]PROPANE SULFONIC ACID
C7 H15 N O4 S
DVLFYONBTKHTER-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.66 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.258 
  • R-Value Work: 0.215 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 52.810α = 90.00
b = 126.150β = 90.00
c = 181.570γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
MOLREPphasing
xia2data scaling
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
REFMACrefinement
xia2data reduction

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2018-06-27
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2018-07-25
    Type: Data collection, Database references