5VT2

Crystal structure of growth differentiation factor


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.3 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.242 
  • R-Value Work: 0.206 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.0 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Long-acting MIC-1/GDF15 molecules to treat obesity: Evidence from mice to monkeys.

Xiong, Y.Walker, K.Min, X.Hale, C.Tran, T.Komorowski, R.Yang, J.Davda, J.Nuanmanee, N.Kemp, D.Wang, X.Liu, H.Miller, S.Lee, K.J.Wang, Z.Veniant, M.M.

(2017) Sci Transl Med 9: --

  • DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aan8732

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • In search of metabolically regulated secreted proteins, we conducted a microarray study comparing gene expression in major metabolic tissues of fed and fasted ob/ob mice and C57BL/6 mice. The array used in this study included probes for ~4000 genes a ...

    In search of metabolically regulated secreted proteins, we conducted a microarray study comparing gene expression in major metabolic tissues of fed and fasted ob/ob mice and C57BL/6 mice. The array used in this study included probes for ~4000 genes annotated as potential secreted proteins. Circulating macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1)/growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) concentrations were increased in obese mice, rats, and humans in comparison to age-matched lean controls. Adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression of GDF15 and recombinant GDF15 treatments reduced food intake and body weight and improved metabolic profiles in various metabolic disease models in mice, rats, and obese cynomolgus monkeys. Analysis of the GDF15 crystal structure suggested that the protein is not suitable for conventional Fc fusion at the carboxyl terminus of the protein. Thus, we used a structure-guided approach to design and successfully generate several Fc fusion molecules with extended half-life and potent efficacy. Furthermore, we discovered that GDF15 delayed gastric emptying, changed food preference, and activated area postrema neurons, confirming a role for GDF15 in the gut-brain axis responsible for the regulation of body energy intake. Our work provides evidence that GDF15 Fc fusion proteins could be potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of obesity and related comorbidities.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Cardiometabolic Disorders, Amgen Inc., 1120 Veterans Boulevard, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Growth/differentiation factor 15
A, B
112Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: GDF15 (MIC1, PDF, PLAB, PTGFB)
Find proteins for Q99988 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: GDF15
Go to UniProtKB:  Q99988
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
EDO
Query on EDO

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
1,2-ETHANEDIOL
ETHYLENE GLYCOL
C2 H6 O2
LYCAIKOWRPUZTN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.3 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.242 
  • R-Value Work: 0.206 
  • Space Group: P 31 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 64.720α = 90.00
b = 64.720β = 90.00
c = 172.530γ = 120.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
MOSFLMdata reduction
MOSFLMdata collection
SCALAdata scaling
REFMACrefinement
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
PHASERphasing

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

  • Deposited Date: 2017-05-15 
  • Released Date: 2017-11-01 
  • Deposition Author(s): Min, X., Wang, Z.

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2017-11-01
    Type: Initial release