Nitrile in the Hole: Discovery of a Small Auxiliary Pocket in Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Leading to the Development of Potent and Selective 2-Aminoquinoline Inhibitors.Cinelli, M.A., Li, H., Chreifi, G., Poulos, T.L., Silverman, R.B.
(2017) J. Med. Chem. 60: 3958-3978
- PubMed: 28422508
- DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00259
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibition is a promising strategy to treat neurodegenerative disorders, but the development of nNOS inhibitors is often hindered by poor pharmacokinetics. We previously developed a class of membrane-permeable 2- ...
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibition is a promising strategy to treat neurodegenerative disorders, but the development of nNOS inhibitors is often hindered by poor pharmacokinetics. We previously developed a class of membrane-permeable 2-aminoquinoline inhibitors and later rearranged the scaffold to decrease off-target binding. However, the resulting compounds had decreased permeability, low human nNOS activity, and low selectivity versus human eNOS. In this study, 5-substituted phenyl ether-linked aminoquinolines and derivatives were synthesized and assayed against purified NOS isoforms. 5-Cyano compounds are especially potent and selective rat and human nNOS inhibitors. Activity and selectivity are mediated by the binding of the cyano group to a new auxiliary pocket in nNOS. Potency was enhanced by methylation of the quinoline and by introduction of simple chiral moieties, resulting in a combination of hydrophobic and auxiliary pocket effects that yielded high (∼500-fold) n/e selectivity. Importantly, the Caco-2 assay also revealed improved membrane permeability over previous compounds.
Departments of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Chemistry, University of California, Irvine , Irvine, California 92697-3900, United States.,Department of Chemistry, Department of Molecular Biosciences, Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Center for Molecular Innovation and Drug Discovery, Northwestern University , 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113, United States.