Allostery and Hysteresis Are Coupled in Human UDP-Glucose Dehydrogenase.Beattie, N.R., Keul, N.D., Sidlo, A.M., Wood, Z.A.
(2017) Biochemistry 56: 202-211
- PubMed: 27966912
- DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.6b01044
- PubMed Abstract:
Human UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (hUGDH) is regulated by an atypical allosteric mechanism in which the feedback inhibitor UDP-xylose (UDP-Xyl) competes with the substrate for the active site. Binding of UDP-Xyl triggers the T131-loop/α6 allosteric swi ...
Human UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (hUGDH) is regulated by an atypical allosteric mechanism in which the feedback inhibitor UDP-xylose (UDP-Xyl) competes with the substrate for the active site. Binding of UDP-Xyl triggers the T131-loop/α6 allosteric switch, which converts the hexameric structure of hUGDH into an inactive, horseshoe-shaped complex (EΩ). This allosteric transition buries residue A136 in the protein core to produce a subunit interface that favors the EΩ structure. Here we use a methionine substitution to prevent the burial of A136 and trap the T131-loop/α6 switch in the active conformation. We show that hUGDHA136M does not exhibit substrate cooperativity, which is strong evidence that the methionine substitution prevents the formation of the low-UDP-Glc-affinity EΩ state. In addition, the inhibitor affinity of hUGDHA136M is reduced 14-fold, which most likely represents the Ki for competitive inhibition in the absence of the allosteric transition to the higher-affinity EΩ state. hUGDH also displays a lag in progress curves, which is caused by a slow, substrate-induced isomerization that activates the enzyme. Stopped-flow analysis shows that hUGDHA136M does not exhibit hysteresis, which suggests that the T131-loop/α6 switch is the source of the slow isomerization. This interpretation is supported by the 2.05 Å resolution crystal structure of hUGDHA136M, which shows that the A136M substitution has stabilized the active conformation of the T131-loop/α6 allosteric switch. This work shows that the T131-loop/α6 allosteric switch couples allostery and hysteresis in hUGDH.
Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Georgia , Athens, Georgia 30602, United States.