Phylogenetic and Structural Comparisons of the Three Types of Methyl Coenzyme M Reductase from Methanococcales and Methanobacteriales.Wagner, T., Wegner, C.E., Kahnt, J., Ermler, U., Shima, S.
(2017) J Bacteriol 199
- PubMed: 28559298
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00197-17
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
5N1Q, 5N28, 5N2A
- PubMed Abstract:
The phylogenetically diverse family of methanogenic archaea universally use methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR) for catalyzing the final methane-forming reaction step of the methanogenic energy metabolism. Some methanogens of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanococcales contain two isoenzymes. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses on the basis of all three subunits grouped MCRs from Methanobacteriales and Methanococcales into three distinct types: (i) MCRs from Methanobacteriales , (ii) MCRs from Methanobacteriales and Methanococcales , and (iii) MCRs from Methanococcales The first and second types contain MCR isoenzymes I and II from Methanothermobacter marburgensis , respectively; therefore, they were designated MCR type I and type II and accordingly; the third one was designated MCR type III. For comparison with the known MCR type I and type II structures, we determined the structure of MCR type III from Methanotorris formicicus and Methanothermococcus thermolithotrophicus As predicted, the three MCR types revealed highly similar overall structures and virtually identical active site architectures reflecting the chemically challenging mechanism of methane formation. Pronounced differences were found at the protein surface with respect to loop geometries and electrostatic properties, which also involve the entrance of the active-site funnel. In addition, the C-terminal end of the γ-subunit is prolonged by an extra helix after helix γ8 in MCR type II and type III, which is, however, differently arranged in the two MCR types. MCR types I, II, and III share most of the posttranslational modifications which appear to fine-tune the enzymatic catalysis. Interestingly, MCR type III lacks the methyl-cysteine but possesses in subunit α of M. formicicus a 6-hydroxy-tryptophan, which thus far has been found only in the α-amanitin toxin peptide but not in proteins. IMPORTANCE Methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR) represents a prime target for the mitigation of methane releases. Phylogenetic analyses of MCRs suggested several distinct sequence clusters; those from Methanobacteriales and Methanococcales were subdivided into three types: MCR type I from Methanobacteriales , MCR type II from Methanobacteriales and Methanococcales , and the newly designated MCR type III exclusively from Methanococcales We determined the first X-ray structures for an MCR type III. Detailed analyses revealed substantial differences between the three types only in the peripheral region. The subtle modifications identified and electrostatic profiles suggested enhanced substrate binding for MCR type III. In addition, MCR type III from Methanotorris formicicus contains 6-hydroxy-tryptophan, a new posttranslational modification that thus far has been found only in the α-amanitin toxin.
Max-Planck-Institut für Terrestrische Mikrobiologie, Marburg, Germany.