5MZ5

Crystal structure of aldehyde dehydrogenase 21 (ALDH21) from Physcomitrella patens in its apoform


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.15 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.210 
  • R-Value Work: 0.184 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

The ALDH21 gene found in lower plants and some vascular plants codes for a NADP(+) -dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase.

Kopecna, M.Vigouroux, A.Vilim, J.Koncitikova, R.Briozzo, P.Hajkova, E.Jaskova, L.von Schwartzenberg, K.Sebela, M.Morera, S.Kopecny, D.

(2017) Plant J. 92: 229-243

  • DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13648
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Lower plant species including some green algae, non-vascular plants (bryophytes) as well as the oldest vascular plants (lycopods) and ferns (monilophytes) possess a unique aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene named ALDH21, which is upregulated during d ...

    Lower plant species including some green algae, non-vascular plants (bryophytes) as well as the oldest vascular plants (lycopods) and ferns (monilophytes) possess a unique aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene named ALDH21, which is upregulated during dehydration. However, the gene is absent in flowering plants. Here, we show that ALDH21 from the moss Physcomitrella patens codes for a tetrameric NADP+ -dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSALDH), which converts succinic semialdehyde, an intermediate of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt pathway, into succinate in the cytosol. NAD+ is a very poor coenzyme for ALDH21 unlike for mitochondrial SSALDHs (ALDH5), which are the closest related ALDH members. Structural comparison between the apoform and the coenzyme complex reveal that NADP+ binding induces a conformational change of the loop carrying Arg-228, which seals the NADP+ in the coenzyme cavity via its 2'-phosphate and α-phosphate groups. The crystal structure with the bound product succinate shows that its carboxylate group establishes salt bridges with both Arg-121 and Arg-457, and a hydrogen bond with Tyr-296. While both arginine residues are pre-formed for substrate/product binding, Tyr-296 moves by more than 1 Å. Both R121A and R457A variants are almost inactive, demonstrating a key role of each arginine in catalysis. Our study implies that bryophytes but presumably also some green algae, lycopods and ferns, which carry both ALDH21 and ALDH5 genes, can oxidize SSAL to succinate in both cytosol and mitochondria, indicating a more diverse GABA shunt pathway compared with higher plants carrying only the mitochondrial ALDH5.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 27, CZ-783 71, Olomouc, Czech Republic.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
ALDH21)
A, B, C, D
515Physcomitrella patens subsp. patensMutation(s): 0 
Find proteins for A9SS48 (Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens)
Go to UniProtKB:  A9SS48
Small Molecules
Ligands 3 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
GOL
Query on GOL

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B, C, D
GLYCEROL
GLYCERIN; PROPANE-1,2,3-TRIOL
C3 H8 O3
PEDCQBHIVMGVHV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
EDO
Query on EDO

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B, C, D
1,2-ETHANEDIOL
ETHYLENE GLYCOL
C2 H6 O2
LYCAIKOWRPUZTN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
PEG
Query on PEG

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
DI(HYDROXYETHYL)ETHER
C4 H10 O3
MTHSVFCYNBDYFN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.15 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.210 
  • R-Value Work: 0.184 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 91.802α = 90.00
b = 151.793β = 90.00
c = 158.518γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
PHASERphasing
XDSdata reduction
BUSTERrefinement
XSCALEdata scaling

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data


Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
GACRCzech Republic15-22322S

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2017-08-09
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2017-10-18
    Type: Database references