The Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Sorghum bicolor Caffeoyl-CoA O-Methyltransferase.Walker, A.M., Sattler, S.A., Regner, M., Jones, J.P., Ralph, J., Vermerris, W., Sattler, S.E., Kang, C.
(2016) Plant Physiol. 172: 78-92
- PubMed: 27457122
- DOI: 10.1104/pp.16.00845
- PubMed Abstract:
Caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is an S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase responsible for methylation of the meta-hydroxyl group of caffeoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) on the pathway to monolignols, with their ring met ...
Caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is an S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase responsible for methylation of the meta-hydroxyl group of caffeoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) on the pathway to monolignols, with their ring methoxylation status characteristic of guaiacyl or syringyl units in lignin. In order to better understand the unique class of type 2 O-methyltransferases from monocots, we have characterized CCoAOMT from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbCCoAOMT), including the SAM binary complex crystal structure and steady-state enzyme kinetics. Key amino acid residues were validated with site-directed mutagenesis. Isothermal titration calorimetry data indicated a sequential binding mechanism for SbCCoAOMT, wherein SAM binds prior to caffeoyl-CoA, and the enzyme showed allosteric behavior with respect to it. 5-Hydroxyferuloyl-CoA was not a substrate for SbCCoAOMT. We propose a catalytic mechanism in which lysine-180 acts as a catalytic base and deprotonates the reactive hydroxyl group of caffeoyl-CoA. This deprotonation is facilitated by the coordination of the reactive hydroxyl group by Ca(2+) in the active site, lowering the pKa of the 3'-OH group. Collectively, these data give a new perspective on the catalytic mechanism of CCoAOMTs and provide a basis for the functional diversity exhibited by type 2 plant OMTs that contain a unique insertion loop (residues 208-231) conferring affinity for phenylpropanoid-CoA thioesters. The structural model of SbCCoAOMT can serve as the basis for protein engineering approaches to enhance the nutritional, agronomic, and industrially relevant properties of sorghum.
School of Molecular Biosciences (A.M.W., S.A.S., C.K.) and Department of Chemistry (J.P.J., C.K.), Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164;Department of Biochemistry and Department of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53726 (M.R., J.R.);Department of Microbiology and Cell Science and Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (W.V.); andUnited States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Grain Forage and Bioenergy Research Unit, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583 (S.E.S.).