5K4Q

Three-dimensional structure of L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma brucei bound to NAD+ refined to 2.3 angstroms


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.3 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.244 
  • R-Value Work: 0.174 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Structure and function of L-threonine-3-dehydrogenase from the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei revealed by X-ray crystallography and geometric simulations.

Adjogatse, E.Erskine, P.Wells, S.A.Kelly, J.M.Wilden, J.D.Chan, A.W.E.Selwood, D.Coker, A.Wood, S.Cooper, J.B.

(2018) Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol 74: 861-876

  • DOI: 10.1107/S2059798318009208
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Two of the world's most neglected tropical diseases, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Chagas disease, are caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma. These organisms possess specialized metabolic pathways, frequently distinct from ...

    Two of the world's most neglected tropical diseases, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Chagas disease, are caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma. These organisms possess specialized metabolic pathways, frequently distinct from those in humans, which have potential to be exploited as novel drug targets. This study elucidates the structure and function of L-threonine-3-dehydrogenase (TDH) from T. brucei, the causative pathogen of HAT. TDH is a key enzyme in the metabolism of L-threonine, and an inhibitor of TDH has been shown to have trypanocidal activity in the procyclic form of T. brucei. TDH is a nonfunctional pseudogene in humans, suggesting that it may be possible to rationally design safe and specific therapies for trypanosomiasis by targeting this parasite enzyme. As an initial step, the TDH gene from T. brucei was expressed and the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was solved by X-ray crystallography. In multiple crystallographic structures, T. brucei TDH is revealed to be a dimeric short-chain dehydrogenase that displays a considerable degree of conformational variation in its ligand-binding regions. Geometric simulations of the structure have provided insight into the dynamic behaviour of this enzyme. Furthermore, structures of TDH bound to its natural substrates and known inhibitors have been determined, giving an indication of the mechanism of catalysis of the enzyme. Collectively, these results provide vital details for future drug design to target TDH or related enzymes.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Biocon BMS R&D Center (BBRC), Syngene International Ltd. , Plot No. 2 & 3, Bommasandra IV Phase, Jigani Link Road, Bangalore 560 099, India.,Department of Chemistry , University of California Irvine , 1102 Natural Sciences II , Irvine , California 92697 , United States.,Micalis Institute, INRA, AgroParisTech , University Paris-Saclay , 78350 Jouy-en-Josas , France.,Departamento de Física e Biofísica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: fontes@ibb.unesp.br.,California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.,Department of Bioengineering, James H. Clark Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305; shannon-au@cuhk.edu.hk wahc@stanford.edu.,Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, United States.,Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States.,Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Department of Excellence 2018-2022, University of Siena, via Aldo Moro, 2, 53100 Siena (SI), Italy; Lead Discovery Siena S.r.l., Castelnuovo Berardenga, Siena, Italy; Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Center for Biotechnology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.,Division of Structural Biology, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia.,Department of Chemistry , Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge , Massachusetts 02139 , United States.,Wound Infections Department, Bacterial Diseases Branch, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA.,Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea.,Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, 04310, South Korea; Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746, South Korea.,Center for Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, United States.,Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biological Engineering and Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, National Center for Engineering Research of Veterinary Bio-products, Xuanwu District, Nanjing 210014, China.,Institute of Molecular Genetics, IGM-CNR, via Abbiategrasso 207, 27100 Pavia, Italy.,Institut für Biophysik, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438, Frankfurt, Germany.,Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.,Center for Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA.,Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712, USA. jmclellan@austin.utexas.edu.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, 59717, USA. jennifer.dubois1@montana.edu.,IMBB-FORTH, N. Plastira 100, 70013 Heraklion, Greece.,Research Center for BioSystems, Land Use and Nutrition (IFZ), Institute of Nutritional Science, Department of Food Sciences, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 65392 Giessen, Germany.,School of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews, Fife, Scotland, United Kingdom.,Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada.,Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface (LRS), UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7197, Paris, F-75005, France.,HIV Dynamics and Replication Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland, USA.,School of Cancer Medicine, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.,Simons Electron Microscopy Center, New York Structural Biology Center, New York, NY, USA.,School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan. Electronic address: akitao@bio.titech.ac.jp.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland; Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.,Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. serge.muyldermans@vub.be.,Department of Microbiology and Center for RNA Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.,2Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.,Singapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637551.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada.,Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA e-filippova@northwestern.edu wf-anderson@northwestern.edu.,Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.,Department of Cardiometabolic Disorders, Amgen Discovery Research, Amgen Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080 yangln3101@gmail.com.,Department of Biological Sciences, Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Columbia University, 1212 Amsterdam Avenue, 701 Fairchild Center, New York, NY 10027, USA. Electronic address: ltong@columbia.edu.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.,Crop Science, Bayer AG, 40789 Monheim, Germany.,Molecular and Cell Biology, International Graduate Program, Academia Sinica and Graduate Institute of Life Science, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.,Janssen Immunosciences, World Without Disease Accelerator, San Diego, CA, 92121, USA.,Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany.,Departments of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, United States; Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.,Department of Pharmacology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, U.S.A.,Departments of Molecular and Cellular Physiology and Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. kcgarcia@stanford.edu.,Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences , University of Copenhagen , DK-2100 Copenhagen , Denmark.,Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zürich, Switzerland. plueckthun@bioc.uzh.ch.,Molecular Biophysics, School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 2DY, UK.,Emory Vaccine Center, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.,Department of Biological Sciences, Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Columbia University, 1212 Amsterdam Avenue, 701 Fairchild Center, New York, NY 10027, USA.,Universität Bayreuth, Lehrstuhl Biopolymere, Universitätsstr. 30, D-95447, Bayreuth, Germany. birgitta.woehrl@uni-bayreuth.de.,the Division of Hematology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104.,School of Food Science & Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), No. 3501 University Road of Changqing District, 250353, Jinan, Shandong Province, China.,Department of Chemistry, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Electronic address: pinghua@bu.edu.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, UCB 596, Boulder, CO 80309-0596, USA.,University of Basel, Biozentrum, Basel CH-4056, Switzerland.,Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia.,CIC bioGUNE, Parque Tecnológico de Bizkaia Edificio 800, 48160 Derio, Spain.,Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Medical Center, 1130 St. Nicholas Avenue, ICRC 402, New York, NY 10032, USA; Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address: af2196@columbia.edu.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.,Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Max-Planck-Ring 5, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.,Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.,Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung, 80424, Taiwan.,Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.,Center for Integrated Protein Science at the Department Chemie, Technische Universitat München, Lichtenbergstraße 4, 85748 Garching, Germany.,Center for Structural Studies, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, D-40225, Düsseldorf, Germany.,Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Max-Planck-Ring 5, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstr. 31, 93040 Regensburg, Germany.,Jack H Skirball Center for Chemical Biology and Proteomics, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA. noel@salk.edu.,CAS Centre for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 230027, Hefei, China. sunlf17@ustc.edu.cn.,Department of Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.,Department of Applied Biology, Dong-A University, Busan, Korea.,Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK. c.moores@mail.cryst.bbk.ac.uk.,Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, 03755, USA.,Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 250 Longwood Avenue, SGM 509, Boston, MA 02115, USA. david.mueller@rosalindfranklin.edu maofu_liao@hms.harvard.edu.,Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Advanced Molecular Imaging, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia; and.,Centro de Análises Proteômicas e Bioquímicas, Pós-Graduação em Ciências Genômicas e Biotecnologia Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, 70790-160, DF, Brazil.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.,the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York 11724.,Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. dudareva@purdue.edu.,GE Healthcare Life Sciences, Beijing 100176, China.,Jack H Skirball Center for Chemical Biology and Proteomics, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA.,State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Peking University, Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiometabolic Molecular Medicine, Beijing 100871, China.,Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. joar.pinto@vub.be.,Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Applied Sciences of Darmstadt, Germany.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Loyola University Chicago, Health Sciences Division, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois, USA.,LOEWE Center for Synthetic Microbiology, Philipps-University Marburg, D-35043, Marburg, Germany.,Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA.,Infection and Immunity Program, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.,Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, 1150 W. Medical Center Drive, SPC 5606, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.,Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Medicinal Chemistry, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Australia.,Department of Biological Science , Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP) , Diadema , SP 09913-030 , Brazil.,Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544; bbassler@princeton.edu.,Department of Medicine, Monash University, Central Clinical School, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia; nicole.mifsud@monash.edu.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA. noel@salk.edu.,School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre and Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.,Universität Bayreuth, Lehrstuhl Biopolymere, Universitätsstr. 30, D-95447, Bayreuth, Germany. stefan.knauer@uni-bayreuth.de.,Infection and Immunity Program &Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.,Biological Science Imaging facility (BSIR), Department of Biology, 89 Chieftan Way, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, Departments of Biological Chemistry and Physiology, and UCLA-DOE Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, United States.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, United States.,Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15(th) Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA.,Janssen Infectious Diseases and Vaccines, Leiden, CN, 2333, The Netherlands. hlangedi@its.jnj.com.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. kcgarcia@stanford.edu.,Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Philipps-University Marburg, D-35043, Marburg, Germany.,Department of Chemistry, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zürich, Switzerland.,Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, 852-8523, Japan.,Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA. david.mueller@rosalindfranklin.edu maofu_liao@hms.harvard.edu.,Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.,Laboratory of Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry, Showa Pharmaceutical University, 3-3165 Higashi-Tamagawagakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543, Japan.,Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo, 13083-970, Brazil.,MOE Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266235, China.,Department of Structural & Chemical Biology, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CIB-CSIC 28040 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: earias@cib.csic.es.,Department of Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.,Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK damgaard@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk dkomander@wehi.edu.au berkun@hadassah.org.il.,State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, China; State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Centre of Genetics and Development, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, China.,Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan; RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research & SPring-8 Center, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.,Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry , Yale University , 266 Whitney Avenue , New Haven , Connecticut 06520 , United States.,Laboratório de RMN, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 74690-900, GO, Brazil.,Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany.,Departments of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Chemistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences , University of California Irvine , 2218 Natural Sciences I , Irvine , California 92697 , United States.,Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, GIGA-Molecular Biology of Diseases , ULiège , B34, Quartier Hôpital, Avenue de l'hôpital, 11 , B-4000 Liège , Belgium.,Center for Redox Biology and Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 and.,Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Humboldtstrasse 50, 8010, Graz, Austria.,School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, 510275 Guangzhou, China.,Department of Chemistry , Emory University , Atlanta , Georgia 30322 , United States.,University of Texas, United States.,Centro de Análises Proteômicas e Bioquímicas, Pós-Graduação em Ciências Genômicas e Biotecnologia Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, 70790-160, DF, Brazil. ocfranco@gmail.com.,Department of Biochemistry , Emory University , Atlanta , Georgia 30322 , United States.,School of Life Sciences, GIST, 123 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61005, Republic of Korea; Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, 123 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61005, Republic of Korea.,Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.,Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Agriculture and Food, Adelaide, SA, 5064, Australia.,School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK.,Institut für Biologie, Strukturbiologie/Biochemie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099, Berlin, Germany.,Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel.,Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 230027, Hefei, China. sunlf17@ustc.edu.cn.,IFOM, Fondazione Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy.,STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0FA, England.,Center for Structural Studies, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, D-40225, Düsseldorf, Germany. sander.smits@hhu.de.,Synthetic Biology Group, MIT Synthetic Biology Center; The Center for Microbiome Informatics and Therapeutics; Research Laboratory of Electronics, Department of Biological Engineering, and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 02139, MA, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , Michigan State University , East Lansing , Michigan 48824 , United States.,Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, TX 77225, USA.,Department of Biotechnology, Duksung Women's University, Seoul, 01369, Republic of Korea.,Laboratory of Biomolecular Research, Department of Biology and Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI CH-5232, Switzerland.,Institute of Biological Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99163.,Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.,College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fujian 350117, China; and.,Department of Microbiology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands.,Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 138673.,Structural Biology of Autophagy Group, Department Structure and Function of Proteins, Helmholtz-Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.,Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Scripps Research, La Jolla, California, USA.,Department of Medicine, Monash University, Central Clinical School, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.,Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 250 Longwood Avenue, SGM 509, Boston, MA 02115, USA.,Purdue Center for Plant Biology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. dudareva@purdue.edu.,Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746, South Korea.,Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, 44 Dysart Rd, R3T 2N2, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.,Molecular Enzymology Group, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute , University of Groningen , Nijenborgh 4 , 9747 AG Groningen , The Netherlands.,Departments of Biochemistry and Biophysics, and Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California 941158-9001, USA.,Keck Biophysics Facility, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA.,Institute of Physical Science and Information Technology, Anhui University, Hefei, China.,Institute for Computational Molecular Science, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 19122, USA.,CJSC Biocad, St. Petersburg, 198515, Russian Federation.,Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo. Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400. Pq Arnold Schimidt., Sao Carlos, SP 13566-590, Brazil. Electronic address: asnascimento@ifsc.usp.br.,College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, Fujian, China.,Laboratory of Molecular and Structural Microbiology, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Mataojo 2020, 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay.,School of Food Science & Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), No. 3501 University Road of Changqing District, 250353, Jinan, Shandong Province, China. Electronic address: ertrdfgg@qlu.edu.cn.,Structural Biology Brussels, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. henri.de.greve@vub.be.,Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.,Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Derring Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, U.S.A. bscharf@vt.edu fschubot@vt.edu.,Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, 02139, MA, USA.,Department of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin 10117, Germany.,Division of Plant Sciences, Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia.,Departamento de Física e Biofísica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP, Brazil.,MOE Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China; Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266235, China. Electronic address: liuweizhi@ouc.edu.cn.,Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.,Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005, USA.,Department of Biology and Biotechnology , University of Pavia , Via Ferrata 1 , 27100 Pavia , Italy.,School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637551; ygao@ntu.edu.sg yangliang@ntu.edu.sg rero@ntu.edu.sg.,Agricultural Solutions, BASF, Morrisville, NC 27560.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address: shohei.koide@nyumc.org.,Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States; Life Sciences Institute, Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States. Electronic address: mcianfro@umich.edu.,Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Müller-Breslau-Str. 10, 10623, Berlin, Germany.,State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.,Department of Pathogen Molecular Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, England.,The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.,Department of Surgery Austin Health, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia.,Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, 04310, South Korea.,Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115, USA.,HIV Dynamics and Replication Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland, USA hughesst@mail.nih.gov.,Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801, USA; Department of Biology, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801, USA.,Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.,Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1 Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603, Japan. Electronic address: ibuka@nupals.ac.jp.,CryoEM and Bioimaging Division, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA 94025.,Department of Allergy, Immunology, and Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia.,Scuola Universitaria Superiore IUSS Pavia , Piazza della Vittoria 15 , 27100 Pavia , Italy.,Center for Structural Biology, Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie, 1050 Brussels, Belgium; Structural Biology Brussels, Department of Bioengineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: rouslan.efremov@vub.vib.be.,Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005, USA.,Biostructural Research, Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences , University of Copenhagen , Universitetsparken 2 , DK-2100 Copenhagen , Denmark.,Institute of Molecular Enzymology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China.,Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, 1-3 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Electronic address: tohru@fbs.osaka-u.ac.jp.,Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.,The Plant Signaling Mechanisms Laboratory, Department of Plant Molecular Biology, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.,Institute of Biochemistry II, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main 60590, Germany.,Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan.,Gene Engineering Division, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Jeonju, 55365, Republic of Korea.,Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India.,Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712, USA.,Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel damgaard@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk dkomander@wehi.edu.au berkun@hadassah.org.il.,Department of Biochemistry , University of Bayreuth , Universitätsstraße 30 , 95445 Bayreuth , Germany.,Schaller Research Group at the University of Heidelberg and the DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany and Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology , University of Heidelberg , Heidelberg , Germany.,Burnet Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia paul.ramsland@rmit.edu.au andrew.scott@onjcri.org.au.,Institute of Chemistry and Metabolomics , University of Lübeck , Lübeck , Germany.,Department of Biology, Laboratory for Microbiology, Philipps-University Marburg, D-35043, Marburg, Germany. bremer@staff.uni-marburg.de.,Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15(th) Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA. Electronic address: mj27@drexel.edu.,Department of Chemistry, University College London, London WC1H OAJ, England.,Leicester Institute of Structural & Chemical Biology and Department of Molecular & Cell Biology, University of Leicester, Lancaster Rd, Leicester LE1 7HB, UK.,State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Peking University, Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiometabolic Molecular Medicine, Beijing 100871, China; Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address: chenlei2016@pku.edu.cn.,Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200032, China.,BioTechMed-Graz, Mozartgasse 12/II, 8010, Graz, Austria.,Center for Microscopy and Microanalysis, Institute of Molecular Bioscience, the University of Queensland, St. Lucia, 4072 QLD, Australia.,National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing, China.,Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.,Research Network of Immunity and Health (RNIH), Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.,Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.,IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain.,National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 80401, USA.,Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address: jmberger@jhmi.edu.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, and lance.seefeldt@usu.edu.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, 59717, USA.,California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.,European Synchrotron Radiation Facility , 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 40220 , 38043 Grenoble , France.,Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.,Bristol-Myers Squibb R&D , US Route 206 & Province Line Road, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-4000, United States.,St. Petersburg National Research Academic University RAS, St. Petersburg, 194021, Russian Federation.,MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. Electronic address: rhegde@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk.,Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. ema.estevens.romao@vub.be.,Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.,New York Structural Biology Center, New York, NY 10027, USA.,Crop Science, Bayer US, Durham, NC 27703.,Janssen Prevention Center, Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V, Leiden, CN, 2333, The Netherlands.,Department of Bioengineering, James H. Clark Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305.,Laboratory of Bacterial Genetics, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), São Paulo 13083-862, Brazil. tyano@unicamp.br.,Laboratory of Structural Biology, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Research Institute for Science and Engineering, and Institute for Medical-oriented Structural Biology, Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8480, Japan.,Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Scripps Research, La Jolla, California, USA erica@scripps.edu.,College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.,Laboratory of Membrane Biophysics and Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065.,Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK. Electronic address: d.kelly@sheffield.ac.uk.,Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institut für Medizinische Physik und Biophysik (CC2), Group Protein X-ray Crystallography and Signal Transduction, Charitéplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: patrick.scheerer@charite.de.,Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. nkorotkova@uky.edu.,Laboratory of Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry, Showa Pharmaceutical University, 3-3165 Higashi-Tamagawagakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543, Japan. Electronic address: titoh@ac.shoyaku.ac.jp.,Laboratory of Bacterial Genetics, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), São Paulo 13083-862, Brazil. alvinbn@gmail.com.,From the School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney New South Wales 2006, Australia, joel.mackay@sydney.edu.au.,CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic Molecular Physics, and National Center for Magnetic Resonance at Wuhan, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.,From the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, jw.peters@wsu.edu.,Institute of Advanced Chemistry of Catalonia (IQAC), CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona, Spain.,Graduate School of Integrated Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 422-8529 Shizuoka, Japan.,Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.,University of Konstanz , Department of Chemistry and Konstanz Research School Chemical Biology , Konstanz , Germany.,National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and National Center of Plant Gene Research, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China. yinping@mail.hzau.edu.cn.,Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine (IBPS), Biogenèse des Signaux Peptidiques (BIOSIPE), UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, F-75005, France.,Gene Center and Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich, Department of Biochemistry, University of Munich, Munich, Germany. becker@genzentrum.lmu.de.,From the Department of Therapeutic Discovery and xmin@amgen.com.,The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.,Biophysical Sciences Program, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Medical Scientist Training Program, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.,Institute of Biotechnology CAS, BIOCEV, Prumyslova 595, 252 50 Vestec, Czech Republic.,Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.,College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, Jilin, China; Key Laboratory of Animal Immunology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Immunology, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan, China.,Department of Medicine, Section of Rheumatology, The Committee on Immunology, The Knapp Center for Lupus and Immunology Research, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.,Division of Transcriptomics, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi, Fukuoka, 812-0054, Japan.,Institute for Molecular Engineering and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.,Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424, Taiwan.,Department of Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics and Maryland Pathogen Research Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.,Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, Australia.,Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Agriculture and Food, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia.,School of Life Sciences, GIST, 123 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61005, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: misunjin@gist.ac.kr.,Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Max-Planck-Ring 5, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstr. 31, 93040 Regensburg, Germany. Electronic address: silke.wiesner@ur.de.,Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China.,School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, the University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia. Electronic address: h.rob.yang@unsw.edu.au.,Rega Institute for Medical Research and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Leuven, Belgium.,Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. nsorge3@umcutrecht.nl.,Laboratory of Molecular Electron Microscopy, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.,School of Molecular Sciences and Biodesign Institution, Arizona State University, 1001 S McAllister Ave, Tempe, AZ, 85281, USA.,AlphaBiomics, London, SW4 0PA, United Kingdom.,Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158.,Hervert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; Department of Biological Sciences, Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium, Columbia University, 1212 Amsterdam Avenue, 701 Fairchild Center, New York, NY 10027, USA.,Department of Biochemistry , Brandeis University , Waltham , Massachusetts 02454 , United States.,The Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424, Taiwan.,Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA florian.krammer@mssm.edu ellebedy@wustl.edu.,State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Centre of Genetics and Development, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Plant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, China.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA. houk@chem.ucla.edu.,Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, Scripps Research, La Jolla, California, USA.,Department of Molecular Imaging and Therapy, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.,Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Vaccines, Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin 300308, China.,Department of Chemistry, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA mluo@gsu.edu.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, U.S.A.,Faculty of Medicine , Université Laval , Québec , QC G1V 0A6 , Canada.,Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA.,School of Biotechnology, State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, R&D Center of Separation and Extraction Technology in Fermentation Industry, Shanghai 200237, China.,Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.,Bristol-Myers Squibb R&D , 311 Pennington-Rocky Hill Road, Pennington, New Jersey 08534-2130, United States.,Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA. Electronic address: bkay@uic.edu.,Tri-Institutional Training Program in Chemical Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065.,Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, 07103, USA.,Molecular Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10065, USA.,Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.,Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Haidian District, Beijing 100094, China.,Section on Molecular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine.,From the Center for Structural Biology, Department of Biochemistry, tlowther@wakehealth.edu.,Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.,Theoretical Molecular Biophysics Laboratory, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, 50 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.,Chemical Biology Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland, USA.,Global and Tropical Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.,Departments of Molecular and Cellular Physiology and Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.,Department of Chemistry, Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry, University of Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28/2, 8010, Graz, Austria.,Institute of Infection and Immunity, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, United Kingdom.,Nano Life Science Institute (WPI-NanoLSI), Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan.,From the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717.,Callaghan Innovation, Gracefield, Lower Hutt, New Zealand.,Wake Forest Baptist Comprehensive Cancer Center, and.,Griffith Institute for Drug Discovery, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia.,College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shanxi, China.,Department of Chemistry, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA.,Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. hong.zhou@ucla.edu.,National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda , Maryland 20892 , United States.,State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Peking University, Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiometabolic Molecular Medicine, Beijing 100871, China; Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.,Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, 332-0012 Saitama, Japan.,Centre for BioImaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117557.,Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.,State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Beijing Advanced Innovation Centre for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing, China. jwwang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry , Utah State University , Logan , Utah 84322-0300 , United States.,Shandong Women's University, No. 2399 University Road of Changqing District, 250300, Jinan, Shandong Province, China.,Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322.,State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, China. Electronic address: ganjhh@fudan.edu.cn.,Takeda California, 10410 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA, 92121, USA.,GSK, Siena, Italy.,Structural Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.,Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, University of British Columbia, 2259 Lower Mall Research Station, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.,Gene Center and Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich, Department of Biochemistry, University of Munich, Munich, Germany. beckmann@genzentrum.lmu.de.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, U.S.A. hujian1@msu.edu alexrd@msu.edu.,From the Center for Structural Biology, Department of Biochemistry.,Structural Molecular Microbiology, Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie (VIB), 1050 Brussels, Belgium. henri.de.greve@vub.be.,Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 153-8902 Tokyo, Japan.,Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge and Cambridge NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge, UK.,Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Medicines (CIRM) , ULiège , Quartier Hôpital, Avenue Hippocrate, 15, B36 , B-4000 Liège , Belgium.,School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand.,Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Department of Excellence 2018-2022, University of Siena, via Aldo Moro, 2, 53100 Siena (SI), Italy.,Janssen Infectious Diseases and Vaccines, Leiden, CN, 2333, The Netherlands.,Department of Chemistry, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Center for Biomedical Mass Spectrometry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.,Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and the Gill Heart Institute, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.,Universität Bayreuth, Lehrstuhl Biopolymere, Universitätsstr. 30, D-95447, Bayreuth, Germany.,UMR5246 ICBMS - CNRS - UCBL , Université de Lyon , 69007 Lyon , France.,Department of Microbiology, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, United States.,Department of Biology, Taiyuan Normal University, China.,School of Life Sciences, GIST, 123 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61005, Republic of Korea.,RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230-0045, Japan.,School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.,Structural Biology Program, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY 10065, USA.,Tumour Targeting Laboratory, Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.,Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Center for Nanoscience, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.,Tumour Targeting Laboratory, Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia paul.ramsland@rmit.edu.au andrew.scott@onjcri.org.au.,Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.,Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.,Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland. Electronic address: allain@mol.biol.ethz.ch.,The Ohio State University, Columbus, United States.,Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.,CAS Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic Molecular Physics, and National Center for Magnetic Resonance at Wuhan, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China. tanglab@wipm.ac.cn.,Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Vaccines, Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin 300308, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; Research Network of Immunity and Health (RNIH), Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address: gaof@im.ac.cn.,School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong; shannon-au@cuhk.edu.hk wahc@stanford.edu.,Structural Genomics Consortium, Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.,Cell Biology Center, Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Yokohama, 226-8503, Japan.,Roy and Diana Vagelos Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6323, United States.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA; Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.,Laboratory of Molecular and Genetic Analysis, Center for Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas, CP6010, 13083-875 Campinas-SP, Brazil.,Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, 04310, South Korea. Electronic address: doohunkim@sookmyung.ac.kr.,Key Laboratory of Animal Immunology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Immunology, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan, China.,Purdue Center for Plant Biology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.,Laboratory of Structural Biology and Crystallography, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, CP6154, 13083-970 Campinas-SP, Brazil.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.,Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India.,State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, People's Republic of China.,Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology , Hamburg , Germany.,Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Sheffield, Firth Court, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.,Medicine Design , Pfizer Inc. , 1 Burtt Road , Andover , Massachusetts 01810 , United States.,Department of Pediatrics, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.,Institute of Structural Biology, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798.,School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan.,Medicine Design , Pfizer Inc. , 445 Eastern Point Road , Groton , Connecticut 06340 , United States.,Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005, USA. Electronic address: jsuh@rice.edu.,School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.,Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cancer Immunotherapy, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.,Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre and School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Basque Country, Leioa, Spain.,Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand.,Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA. glander@scripps.edu.,Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA. ruta@rockefeller.edu.,Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.,From the Department of Therapeutic Discovery and zwang@amgen.com.,Institute of Biochemistry, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, D-40225, Düsseldorf, Germany. sander.smits@hhu.de.,Forschungszentrum für Bio-Makromoleküle, Universitätsstr. 30, D-95447, Bayreuth, Germany.,Service of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland thilo.kohler@unige.ch.,Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 37673, Republic of Korea.,Ubiquitin Signalling Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville Melbourne, VIC, Australia.,Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan.,Pharmaron Beijing Co., Ltd. , No. 6 Taihe Road, BDA , Beijing 100176 , P. R. China.,National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and National Center of Plant Gene Research, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.,Institute of Life Sciences , Université catholique de Louvain , B-1348 Louvain-La-Neuve , Belgium.,S-Inova Biotech, Pós-graduação em Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Dom Bosco, Campo Grande, 79117-010, MS, Brazil. ocfranco@gmail.com.,Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address: alexei.savchenko@ucalgary.ca.,Opti-Mol Consulting, LLC, Cary, NC 27513.,Center for Structural Biology, Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie, 1050 Brussels, Belgium; Structural Biology Brussels, Department of Bioengineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.,Department of Macromolecular Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan. Electronic address: kimada@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp.,Medicinal Chemistry & Drug Discovery, Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3QT, U.K.,GM/CA at Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory , Lemont, Illinois 60439, United States.,School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea.,Department of Macromolecular Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan.,Service of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.,Department of Organic Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.,Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.,Biosciences Division, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA 94025.,School of Pharmacy , Baotou Medical College , Baotou 014060 , China.,Aix Marseille Université , CEA, CNRS, BIAM, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance , France.,Department of Chemical Engineering (Centre for Advanced Separations Engineering), University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, England.,Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Derring Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, U.S.A.,Austrian Centre of Industrial Biotechnology (ACIB), Petersgasse 14, 8010, Graz, Austria.,Drug Discovery, Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, England.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.,Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.,Molecular Pathology Post-graduate Program, University of Brasília, Brasília, 70.910-900, DF, Brazil. ocfranco@gmail.com.,School of Chemistry , University of Bristol , Cantock's Close, Bristol BS8 1TS , United Kingdom.,Gene Expression and Regulation Program, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.,The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Electronic address: gren@lbl.gov.,Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575, Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA.,Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces , Department of Theory and Bio-Systems , Potsdam , Germany.,Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. yann.sterckx@vub.be.,Department of Advanced Medical Initiatives, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.,Department of Systems Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.,New Drug Development Center, Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation, Daegu 41061, Republic of Korea.,Department of Microbial Pathogens and Immunity , Rush University Medical Center , Chicago , Illinois 60612 , United States.,Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address: tgonen@ucla.edu.,LOEWE Center for Synthetic Microbiology, Philipps-University Marburg, D-35043, Marburg, Germany. bremer@staff.uni-marburg.de.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Florida, 1200 Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.,Research Institute of Green Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 422-8529 Shizuoka, Japan.,Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Tech, Engel Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, U.S.A.,Molecular Biophysics, School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 2DY, UK. john.mcgeehan@port.ac.uk.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.,Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.,MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. Electronic address: vish@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk.,Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.,Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, 230027, Hefei, China.,Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics , Michigan State University , East Lansing , Michigan 48824 , United States.,Institute of Microbial Chemistry, Tokyo, Japan.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of San Diego, San Diego, United States.,Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia roisin.mcmahon@griffith.edu.au pmireland@dstl.gov.uk jlm@griffith.edu.au.,Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron, IBMM, UMR-5247, CNRS , Université Montpellier , ENSCM, Place Eugène Bataillon , 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 , France.,Institut für Virologie, Philipps-Universität, Robert-Koch-Strasse 17, Marburg 35037, Germany.,Molecular Basis of Disease, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.,State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address: yfeng2009@sjtu.edu.cn.,Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, 02139, MA, USA. cfuente@mit.edu.,Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States; Section of Molecular Biology, Division of Biology, University of California - San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.,Marshall Centre for Infectious Disease Research and Training, School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.,Center for Molecular Signaling, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27101.,Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Japan.,Agricultural Solutions, BASF, Morrisville, NC 27560; Jelena.zaitseva@agro.basf-se.com.,Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland; Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, 3800 VIC, Australia. Electronic address: fionna.loughlin@monash.edu.,Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK. s.manka@mail.cryst.bbk.ac.uk.,Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences , University of L'Aquila , 67100 L'Aquila , Italy.,Department of Cardiometabolic Disorders, Amgen Discovery Research, Amgen Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080.,College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, Jilin, China; Key Laboratory of Animal Immunology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Immunology, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan, China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shanxi, China; College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address: zhanggaiping2003@163.com.,Department of Biochemistry and Center of Excellence in Protein and Enzyme Technology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.,Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Chemical, Biological and Radiological Division, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, United Kingdom roisin.mcmahon@griffith.edu.au pmireland@dstl.gov.uk jlm@griffith.edu.au.,GSK, Rockville, MD, United States of America.,Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.,Institute of Infection and Immunity, Cardiff University, School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.,Department of Molecular Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, United States.,School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, China.,Department of Biology, Laboratory for Microbiology, Philipps-University Marburg, D-35043, Marburg, Germany.,Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland.,Department of Biochemistry and Emory Antibiotic Resistance Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.,Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.,Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, 1150 W. Medical Center Drive, SPC 5606, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address: uhnsoo@med.umich.edu.,Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institut für Biochemie (CC2), Charitéplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.,Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544.,Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.,Feil Family Brain and Mind Institute, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10021, USA.,Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.,California Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Research, University of California, San Francisco, California 941158-9001, USA.,Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address: arac@uchicago.edu.,Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, San Diego, CA, United States of America.,Unit for Cell Biology, Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan.,Australian Synchrotron, Macromolecular Crystallography, Clayton, Victoria, 3168, Australia.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, and.,School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, the University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.,Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.,Unit of Polar Genomics, Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), Incheon, 21990, South Korea; Department of Polar Sciences, University of Science and Technology (UST), Incheon, 21990, South Korea.,European XFEL GmbH , Schenefeld , Germany.,Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt.,Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.,Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, 1150 W. Medical Center Drive, SPC 5606, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.,Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, England.,Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200032, China. yzhang@sippe.ac.cn.,State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Peking University, Beijing Key Laboratory of Cardiometabolic Molecular Medicine, Beijing 100871, China; Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.,Porto Reports, Brasília, 72236-011, DF, Brazil.,Emory Vaccine Center, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA florian.krammer@mssm.edu ellebedy@wustl.edu.,Unit of Polar Genomics, Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), Incheon, 21990, South Korea; Department of Polar Sciences, University of Science and Technology (UST), Incheon, 21990, South Korea. Electronic address: junhyucklee@kopri.re.kr.,CHU de Québec - Research Center , 2705 Boulevard Laurier , Québec , QC G1V 4G2 , Canada.,Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.,Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics , Karolinska Institutet , SE-171 77 Stockholm , Sweden.,Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, California 941158-9001, USA.,Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Chemical, Biological and Radiological Division, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire, United Kingdom.,Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea. sangholee@skku.edu.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Haidian District, Beijing 100094, China.,Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Campus, 4002, Basel, Switzerland.,The Warren and Katharine Schlinger Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, United States.,School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei, China.,Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801, USA. Electronic address: rodolfo.tello-aburto@nmt.edu.,Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.,CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.,Gene Center and Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich, Department of Biochemistry, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.,Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne VIC, Australia.,Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, 09210-580, Brazil.,Innovent e.V., Prüssingstrasse 27B, 07745 Jena, Germany.,S-Inova Biotech, Pós-graduação em Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Dom Bosco, Campo Grande, 79117-010, MS, Brazil.,Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bio-imaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.,Department of Chemistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea.,National Laboratory of Macromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.,Monique and Jacques Roboh Department of Genetic Research, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.,Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599-3280, USA.,Department of Chemistry , Michigan State University , East Lansing , Michigan 48824 , United States.,Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.,National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 80401, USA. gregg.beckham@nrel.gov.,Department of Chemistry, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Korea.,Laboratory for Protein Crystallography, Division of Medicine, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 7HT, England.,Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, MOE Key Laboratory for Protein Science, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.,Global Discovery Chemistry, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Campus, 4002, Basel, Switzerland.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815.,Small Molecule Discovery Center, University of California, San Francisco, California 93858-2330, USA.,Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. vmb@pennmedicine.upenn.edu.,Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 941158-9001, USA.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Haidian District, Beijing 100094, China; xiachun@cau.edu.cn.,Institut de Microbiologie de la Méditerranée, CNRS LCB UMR 7283 , Aix Marseille Université , 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier , 13009 Marseille , France.,Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 80401, USA.,Graduate School of Integrated Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 422-8529 Shizuoka, Japan; narikawa.rei@shizuoka.ac.jp.,Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.,Department of Biochemistry and Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada; Department of Biochemistry and Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada.,GM/CA@APS, The X-Ray Science Division, The Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439, USA.,Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. jennyh@niddk.nih.gov.,State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Science, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, China.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.,Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.,Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.,Division of Transcriptomics, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi, Fukuoka, 812-0054, Japan. yohkawa@bioreg.kyushu-u.ac.jp.,Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, 26-1, Muraoka-higashi 2-chome, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 251-8555, Japan.,Unit of Polar Genomics, Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), Incheon, 21990, South Korea.,University of Texas.,Stanford Blood Center, Palo Alto, CA, USA.,Research & Early Development , Genentech, Inc. , 1 DNA Way , South San Francisco , California 94080 , United States.,MOE Key Laboratory of Marine Genetics and Breeding, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China.,Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo. Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400. Pq Arnold Schimidt., Sao Carlos, SP 13566-590, Brazil.,Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf , Institute for Organic Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry , Düsseldorf , Germany.,NAmur MEdicine & Drug Innovation Center (NAMEDIC), NARILIS, UNamur , rue de Bruxelles 61 , B-5000 Namur , Belgium.,Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. dudareva@purdue.edu.,Institute of Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery and Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3400, USA.,Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1 Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603, Japan.,Biosyntia ApS, Copenhagen, 2100, Denmark.,Molecular Pathology Post-graduate Program, University of Brasília, Brasília, 70.910-900, DF, Brazil.,Unidad de Biofisica, Centro Mixto Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas-Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (CSIC,UPV/EHU), Leioa, Bizkaia, Spain.,Department of Computational Mathematics, Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, U.S.A.,Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.,Structural Biology Center, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA.,Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Department of Excellence 2018-2022, University of Siena, via Aldo Moro, 2, 53100 Siena (SI), Italy. Electronic address: pozzi4@unisi.it.,Gene Center and Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich, Department of Biochemistry, University of Munich, Munich, Germany. beatrix@genzentrum.lmu.de.,Paul Scherrer Institute, OFLC/106, 5232, Villigen PSI, Switzerland.,Present address: Hospira Zagreb d.o.o., a Pfizer company, Prudnicka cesta 60, 10291, Prigorje Brdovecko, Croatia.,From the Department of Therapeutic Discovery and.,Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.,School of Science, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia.,From the School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney New South Wales 2006, Australia.,Comprehensive AIDS Research Center , School of Medicine , Tsinghua University , Beijing 100084 , China . Email: shixuanlingsk@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn.,Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.,Department of Chemistry , Yale University , 225 Prospect Street , New Haven , Connecticut 06520 , United States.,Screening Technologies Branch, Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick 21702, Maryland, United States.,Faculty of Pharmacy , University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City , 41 Dinh Tien Hoang Street, Ben Nghe Ward, District 1 , Ho Chi Minh City , Vietnam.,State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Science, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, China. Electronic address: lijixi@fudan.edu.cn.,Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, UCB 596, Boulder, CO 80309-0596, USA. Electronic address: deborah.wuttke@colorado.edu.,Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801, USA.,Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.,Division of Biophysics, Department of Biology, University of Osnabruck, Osnabruck, Germany.,Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.,Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA; Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA. Electronic address: garudenk@utmb.edu.,the Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand, and.,Kekulé-Institute for Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Friedrich-Wilhelms-University Bonn, D-53121, Bonn, Germany.,Institute of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tokushima University, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima, 770-8503, Japan.,1Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Division of Industrial Biotechnology, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.,Frontier Research Center for Applied Atomic Sciences, Ibaraki University, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan.,Molecular Biotechnology Group, Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Science, Sao Carlos Institute of Physics (IFSC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Avenida Trabalhador São-carlense 400, Parque Arnold Schimidt, 13566-590 São Carlos-SP, Brazil.,Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, U.S.A.,Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 203201, China.,CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.,Burnet Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.,Department of Biochemistry and Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto , Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada.,MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK.,Ono Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Mishima-Gun, Osaka 618-8585, Japan.,Structural Biology Laboratory, Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste 34149, Italy.,School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637551.,IFOM, Fondazione Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy; Dipartimento di Oncologia ed Emato-Oncologia, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via S. Sofia, 9/1, 20122 Milan, Italy.,Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK.,Department of Biochemical Sciences , Sapienza University of Rome , 00185 Roma , Italy.,Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development-PRIME, 100-0004 Tokyo, Japan.,Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, MOE Key Laboratory for Protein Science, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Institute of Molecular Enzymology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China. Electronic address: jiaweiwu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn.,Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, M5S 3E1 Toronto, Ontario, Canada.,Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.,Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institut für Medizinische Physik und Biophysik (CC2), Group Protein X-ray Crystallography and Signal Transduction, Charitéplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.,Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institut für Biochemie (CC2), Charitéplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: hartmut.kuhn@charite.de.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.,Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy , University of Illinois at Chicago , Chicago , Illinois 60607 , United States.,National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA.,Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA.,Synthetic Biology Group, MIT Synthetic Biology Center; The Center for Microbiome Informatics and Therapeutics; Research Laboratory of Electronics, Department of Biological Engineering, and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 02139, MA, USA. cfuente@mit.edu.,Department of Biology, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801, USA.,Departments of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, and Chemical Engineering & Materials Science , University of California Irvine , 2218 Natural Sciences I , Irvine , California 92697 , United States.,Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas, United States.,Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA; Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Electronic address: jzhang@cm.utexas.edu.,Laboratory of Membrane Biophysics and Biology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065; juechen@rockefeller.edu.,State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, China.,Université Côte d'Azur, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Pharmacologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Valbonne Sophia Antipolis, France.,York Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, The University of York, York YO10 5DD, England.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase
A, B, C, D, E, F
320Trypanosoma bruceiMutation(s): 0 
EC: 1.1.1.103
Find proteins for Q7YW97 (Trypanosoma brucei)
Go to UniProtKB:  Q7YW97
Small Molecules
Ligands 3 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
SO4
Query on SO4

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
B, C, D, F
SULFATE ION
O4 S
QAOWNCQODCNURD-UHFFFAOYSA-L
 Ligand Interaction
GOL
Query on GOL

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B, C, D, E, F
GLYCEROL
GLYCERIN; PROPANE-1,2,3-TRIOL
C3 H8 O3
PEDCQBHIVMGVHV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
NAD
Query on NAD

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B, C, D, E, F
NICOTINAMIDE-ADENINE-DINUCLEOTIDE
C21 H27 N7 O14 P2
BAWFJGJZGIEFAR-NNYOXOHSSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.3 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.244 
  • R-Value Work: 0.174 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 2
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 133.630α = 90.00
b = 277.720β = 90.00
c = 56.000γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
SCALAdata scaling
REFMACrefinement
iMOSFLMdata reduction
MOLREPphasing

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2017-11-15
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2018-09-19
    Type: Data collection, Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2018-10-10
    Type: Data collection, Database references