Crystal Structure of the New Investigational Drug Candidate VT-1598 in Complex with Aspergillus fumigatus Sterol 14 alpha-Demethylase Provides Insights into Its Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Activity.Hargrove, T.Y., Garvey, E.P., Hoekstra, W.J., Yates, C.M., Wawrzak, Z., Rachakonda, G., Villalta, F., Lepesheva, G.I.
(2017) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 61: --
- PubMed: 28461309
- DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00570-17
- PubMed Abstract:
Within the past few decades, the incidence and complexity of human fungal infections have increased, and therefore, the need for safer and more efficient, broad-spectrum antifungal agents is high. In the study described here, we characterized the new ...
Within the past few decades, the incidence and complexity of human fungal infections have increased, and therefore, the need for safer and more efficient, broad-spectrum antifungal agents is high. In the study described here, we characterized the new tetrazole-based drug candidate VT-1598 as an inhibitor of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51B) from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus VT-1598 displayed a high affinity of binding to the enzyme in solution (dissociation constant, 13 ± 1 nM) and in the reconstituted enzymatic reaction was revealed to have an inhibitory potency stronger than the potencies of all other simultaneously tested antifungal drugs, including fluconazole, voriconazole, ketoconazole, and posaconazole. The X-ray structure of the VT-1598/ A. fumigatus CYP51 complex was determined and depicts the distinctive binding mode of the inhibitor in the enzyme active site, suggesting the molecular basis of the improved drug potency and broad-spectrum antifungal activity. These data show the formation of an optimized hydrogen bond between the phenoxymethyl oxygen of VT-1598 and the imidazole ring nitrogen of His374, the CYP51 residue that is highly conserved across fungal pathogens and fungus specific. Comparative structural analysis of A. fumigatus CYP51/voriconazole and Candida albicans CYP51/VT-1161 complexes supports the role of H bonding in fungal CYP51/inhibitor complexes and emphasizes the importance of an optimal distance between this interaction and the inhibitor-heme iron interaction. Cellular experiments using two A. fumigatus strains (strains 32820 and 1022) displayed a direct correlation between the effects of the drugs on CYP51B activity and fungal growth inhibition, indicating the noteworthy anti- A. fumigatus potency of VT-1598 and confirming its promise as a broad-spectrum antifungal agent.
Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.,Synchrotron Research Center, Life Science Collaborative Access Team, Northwestern University, Argonne, Illinois, USA.,Viamet Pharmaceuticals, Durham, North Carolina, USA.,Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.,Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA email@example.com.,Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.