Hydroxyl regioisomerization of anthracycline catalyzed by a four-enzyme cascadeZhang, Z., Gong, Y.-K., Zhou, Q., Hu, Y., Ma, H.-M., Chen, Y.-S., Igarashi, Y., Pan, L., Tang, G.-L.
(2017) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114: 1554-1559
- PubMed: 28137838
- DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1610097114
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Ranking among the most effective anticancer drugs, anthracyclines represent an important family of aromatic polyketides generated by type II polyketide synthases (PKSs). After formation of polyketide cores, the post-PKS tailoring modifications endow ...
Ranking among the most effective anticancer drugs, anthracyclines represent an important family of aromatic polyketides generated by type II polyketide synthases (PKSs). After formation of polyketide cores, the post-PKS tailoring modifications endow the scaffold with various structural diversities and biological activities. Here we demonstrate an unprecedented four-enzyme-participated hydroxyl regioisomerization process involved in the biosynthesis of kosinostatin. First, KstA15 and KstA16 function together to catalyze a cryptic hydroxylation of the 4-hydroxyl-anthraquinone core, yielding a 1,4-dihydroxyl product, which undergoes a chemically challenging asymmetric reduction-dearomatization subsequently acted by KstA11; then, KstA10 catalyzes a region-specific reduction concomitant with dehydration to afford the 1-hydroxyl anthraquinone. Remarkably, the shunt product identifications of both hydroxylation and reduction-dehydration reactions, the crystal structure of KstA11 with bound substrate and cofactor, and isotope incorporation experiments reveal mechanistic insights into the redox dearomatization and rearomatization steps. These findings provide a distinguished tailoring paradigm for type II PKS engineering.
State Key Laboratory of Bio-organic and Natural Products Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China.