Structure of Human apo ALDH1A1

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.74 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.216 
  • R-Value Work: 0.185 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.186 

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Development of a high-throughput in vitro assay to identify selective inhibitors for human ALDH1A1.

Morgan, C.A.Hurley, T.D.

(2015) Chem Biol Interact 234: 29-37

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2014.10.028
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    4WB9, 4WJ9

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily consists of at least 19 enzymes that metabolize endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. Currently, there are no commercially available inhibitors that target ALDH1A1 but have little to no effect on the structurally and functionally similar ALDH2. Here we present the first human ALDH1A1 structure, as the apo-enzyme and in complex with its cofactor NADH to a resolution of 1.75 and 2.1Å, respectfully. Structural comparisons of the cofactor binding sites in ALDH1A1 with other closely related ALDH enzymes illustrate a high degree of similarity. In order to minimize discovery of compounds that inhibit both isoenzymes by interfering with their conserved cofactor binding sites, this study reports the use of an in vitro, NAD(+)-independent, esterase-based high-throughput screen (HTS) of 64,000 compounds to discover novel, selective inhibitors of ALDH1A1. We describe 256 hits that alter the esterase activity of ALDH1A1. The effects on aldehyde oxidation of 67 compounds were further analyzed, with 30 selectively inhibiting ALDH1A1 compared to ALDH2 and ALDH3A1. One compound inhibited ALDH1A1 and ALDH2, while another inhibited ALDH1A1, ALDH2, and the more distantly related ALDH3A1. The results presented here indicate that this in vitro enzyme activity screening protocol successfully identified ALDH1A1 inhibitors with a high degree of isoenzyme selectivity. The compounds identified via this screen plus the screening methodology itself represent a starting point for the development of highly potent and selective inhibitors of ALDH1A1 that may be utilized to better understand the role of this enzyme in both normal and disease states.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 635 Barnhill Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46202, United States.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Retinal dehydrogenase 1501Homo sapiensMutation(s): 1 
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P00352 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P00352 
Go to UniProtKB:  P00352
PHAROS:  P00352
GTEx:  ENSG00000165092 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP00352
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.74 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.216 
  • R-Value Work: 0.185 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.186 
  • Space Group: P 4 2 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 109.297α = 90
b = 109.297β = 90
c = 83.236γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose

Structure Validation

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Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data

Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
National Institutes of Health/National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIH/NIAAA)United StatesR01AA018123

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2014-12-10
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2015-05-06
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2017-09-06
    Changes: Advisory, Author supporting evidence, Derived calculations, Other, Source and taxonomy
  • Version 1.3: 2019-12-11
    Changes: Author supporting evidence
  • Version 1.4: 2023-12-27
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations, Refinement description