Major Change in Regiospecificity for the Exo-1,3-beta-glucanase from Candida albicans following Its Conversion to a Glycosynthase.Nakatani, Y., Larsen, D.S., Cutfield, S.M., Cutfield, J.F.
(2014) Biochemistry 53: 3318-3326
- PubMed: 24804868
- DOI: 10.1021/bi500239m
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
4M80, 4M81, 4M82
- PubMed Abstract:
The exo-1,3-β-glucanase (Exg) from Candida albicans is involved in cell wall β-d-glucan metabolism and morphogenesis through its hydrolase and transglycosidase activities. Previous work has shown that both these activities strongly favor β-1,3-linkag ...
The exo-1,3-β-glucanase (Exg) from Candida albicans is involved in cell wall β-d-glucan metabolism and morphogenesis through its hydrolase and transglycosidase activities. Previous work has shown that both these activities strongly favor β-1,3-linkages. The E292S Exg variant displayed modest glycosynthase activity using α-d-glucopyranosyl fluoride (α-GlcF) as the donor and pNP-β-d-glucopyranoside (pNPGlc) as the acceptor but surprisingly showed a marked preference for synthesizing β-1,6-linked over β-1,3- and β-1,4-linked disaccharide products. With pNPXyl as the acceptor, the preference became β-1,4 over β-1,3. The crystal structure of the glycosynthase bound to both of its substrates, α-GlcF and pNPGlc, is the first such ternary complex structure to be determined. The results revealed that the donor bound in the -1 subsite, as expected, while the acceptor was oriented in the +1 subsite to facilitate β-1,6-linkage, thereby supporting the results from solution studies. A second crystal structure containing the major product of glycosynthesis, pNP-gentiobiose, showed that the -1 subsite allows another docking position for the terminal sugar; i.e., one position is set up for catalysis, whereas the other is an intermediate stage prior to the displacement of water from the active site by the incoming sugar hydroxyls. The +1 subsite, an aromatic "clamp", permits several different sugar positions and orientations, including a 180° flip that explains the observed variable regiospecificity. The p-nitrophenyl group on the acceptor most likely influences the unexpectedly observed β-1,6-specificity through its interaction with F229. These results demonstrate that tailoring the specificity of a particular glycosynthase depends not only on the chemical structure of the acceptor but also on understanding the structural basis of the promiscuity of the native enzyme.
Biochemistry Department, University of Otago , P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.