Crystallographic structure of phenylalanine hydroxylase from Chromobacterium violaceum F258A mutation

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.49 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.214 
  • R-Value Work: 0.165 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.167 

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An additional substrate binding site in a bacterial phenylalanine hydroxylase.

Ronau, J.A.Paul, L.N.Fuchs, J.E.Corn, I.R.Wagner, K.T.Liedl, K.R.Abu-Omar, M.M.Das, C.

(2013) Eur Biophys J 42: 691-708

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00249-013-0919-8
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    3TCY, 3TK2, 3TK4, 4ESM, 4ETL, 4JPX, 4JPY

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is a non-heme iron enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of phenylalanine to tyrosine, a reaction that must be kept under tight regulatory control. Mammalian PAH has a regulatory domain in which binding of the substrate leads to allosteric activation of the enzyme. However, the existence of PAH regulation in evolutionarily distant organisms, for example some bacteria in which it occurs, has so far been underappreciated. In an attempt to crystallographically characterize substrate binding by PAH from Chromobacterium violaceum, a single-domain monomeric enzyme, electron density for phenylalanine was observed at a distal site 15.7 Å from the active site. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments revealed a dissociation constant of 24 ± 1.1 μM for phenylalanine. Under the same conditions, ITC revealed no detectable binding for alanine, tyrosine, or isoleucine, indicating the distal site may be selective for phenylalanine. Point mutations of amino acid residues in the distal site that contact phenylalanine (F258A, Y155A, T254A) led to impaired binding, consistent with the presence of distal site binding in solution. Although kinetic analysis revealed that the distal site mutants suffer discernible loss of their catalytic activity, X-ray crystallographic analysis of Y155A and F258A, the two mutants with the most noticeable decrease in activity, revealed no discernible change in the structure of their active sites, suggesting that the effect of distal binding may result from protein dynamics in solution.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Brown Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, 560 Oval Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase302Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472Mutation(s): 1 
Gene Names: phhACV_3180
Find proteins for P30967 (Chromobacterium violaceum (strain ATCC 12472 / DSM 30191 / JCM 1249 / NBRC 12614 / NCIMB 9131 / NCTC 9757))
Explore P30967 
Go to UniProtKB:  P30967
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP30967
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.49 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.214 
  • R-Value Work: 0.165 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.167 
  • Space Group: P 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 36.78α = 76.47
b = 38.553β = 73
c = 48.044γ = 85.36
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
HKL-3000data collection
HKL-3000data reduction
HKL-3000data scaling

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2013-05-08
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2013-07-31
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2013-08-28
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.3: 2019-11-20
    Changes: Database references, Derived calculations
  • Version 1.4: 2023-09-13
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations, Refinement description