Crystal structure of the human galectin-4 C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain in complex with lactose-3'-sulfate

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.10 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.210 
  • R-Value Work: 0.161 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.163 

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Structural characterization of human galectin-4 C-terminal domain: elucidating the molecular basis for recognition of glycosphingolipids, sulfated saccharides and blood group antigens.

Bum-Erdene, K.Leffler, H.Nilsson, U.J.Blanchard, H.

(2015) FEBS J 282: 3348-3367

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.13348
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    4YLZ, 4YM0, 4YM1, 4YM2, 4YM3

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Human galectin-4 is a lectin that is expressed mainly in the gastrointestinal tract and exhibits metastasis-promoting roles in some cancers. Its tandem-repeat nature exhibits two distinct carbohydrate recognition domains allowing crosslinking by simultaneous binding to sulfated and non-sulfated (but not sialylated) glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins, facilitating stabilization of lipid rafts. Critically, galectin-4 exerts favourable or unfavourable effects depending upon the cancer. Here we report the first X-ray crystallographic structural information on human galectin-4, specifically the C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain of human (galectin-4C) in complex with lactose, lactose-3'-sulfate, 2'-fucosyllactose, lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-neotetraose. These structures enable elucidation of galectin-4C binding fine-specificity towards sulfated and non-sulfated lacto- and neolacto-series sphingolipids as well as to human blood group antigens. Analysis of the lactose-3'-sulfate complex structure shows that galectin-4C does not recognize the sulfate group using any specific amino acid, but binds the ligand nonetheless. Complex structures with lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-neotetraose displayed differences in binding interactions exhibited by the non-reducing-end galactose. That of lacto-N-tetraose points outward from the protein surface whereas that of lacto-N-neotetraose interacts directly with the protein. Recognition patterns of human galectin-4C towards lacto- and neolacto-series glycosphingolipids are similar to those of human galectin-3; however, detailed scrutiny revealed differences stemming from the extended binding site that offer distinction in ligand profiles of these two galectins. Structural characterization of the complex with 2'-fucosyllactose, a carbohydrate with similarity to the H antigen, and molecular dynamics studies highlight structural features that allow specific recognition of A and B antigens, whilst a lack of interaction with the 2'-fucose of blood group antigens was revealed. 4YLZ, 4YM0, 4YM1, 4YM2, 4YM3.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Australia.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
A, B, C, D
153Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: LGALS4
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P56470 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P56470 
Go to UniProtKB:  P56470
PHAROS:  P56470
GTEx:  ENSG00000171747 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP56470
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence


Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChains Length2D Diagram Glycosylation3D Interactions
E, F
Glycosylation Resources
GlyTouCan:  G20044TD
GlyCosmos:  G20044TD
GlyGen:  G20044TD
Entity ID: 3
MoleculeChains Length2D Diagram Glycosylation3D Interactions
G, H
Glycosylation Resources
GlyTouCan:  G84224TW
GlyCosmos:  G84224TW
GlyGen:  G84224TW
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.10 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.210 
  • R-Value Work: 0.161 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.163 
  • Space Group: P 1 21 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 45.224α = 90
b = 129.208β = 96.88
c = 45.233γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
Aimlessdata scaling
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
XDSdata reduction

Structure Validation

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Entry History & Funding Information

Deposition Data

Funding OrganizationLocationGrant Number
Cancer Council QueenslandAustralia1043716

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2015-07-01
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2015-09-09
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 2.0: 2020-07-29
    Type: Remediation
    Reason: Carbohydrate remediation
    Changes: Atomic model, Data collection, Derived calculations, Non-polymer description, Structure summary
  • Version 2.1: 2023-09-27
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Refinement description, Structure summary