An HD-domain phosphodiesterase mediates cooperative hydrolysis of c-di-AMP to affect bacterial growth and virulence.Huynh, T.N., Luo, S., Pensinger, D., Sauer, J.D., Tong, L., Woodward, J.J.
(2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112: E747-E756
- PubMed: 25583510
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1416485112
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
The nucleotide cyclic di-3',5'- adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) was recently identified as an essential and widespread second messenger in bacterial signaling. Among c-di-AMP-producing bacteria, altered nucleotide levels result in several physiological defects and attenuated virulence. Thus, a detailed molecular understanding of c-di-AMP metabolism is of both fundamental and practical interest. Currently, c-di-AMP degradation is recognized solely among DHH-DHHA1 domain-containing phosphodiesterases. Using chemical proteomics, we identified the Listeria monocytogenes protein PgpH as a molecular target of c-di-AMP. Biochemical and structural studies revealed that the PgpH His-Asp (HD) domain bound c-di-AMP with high affinity and specifically hydrolyzed this nucleotide to 5'-pApA. PgpH hydrolysis activity was inhibited by ppGpp, indicating a cross-talk between c-di-AMP signaling and the stringent response. Genetic analyses supported coordinated regulation of c-di-AMP levels in and out of the host. Intriguingly, a L. monocytogenes mutant that lacks c-di-AMP phosphodiesterases exhibited elevated c-di-AMP levels, hyperinduced a host type-I IFN response, and was significantly attenuated for infection. Furthermore, PgpH homologs, which belong to the 7TMR-HD family, are widespread among hundreds of c-di-AMP synthesizing microorganisms. Thus, PgpH represents a broadly conserved class of c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase with possibly other physiological functions in this crucial signaling network.
Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027; and.