Crystal structure of C117S mutant of human acidic fibroblast growth factor

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.49 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.182 
  • R-Value Work: 0.162 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.162 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report

This is version 1.0 of the entry. See complete history


Mutation choice to eliminate buried free cysteines in protein therapeutics.

Xia, X.Longo, L.M.Blaber, M.

(2015) J Pharm Sci 104: 566-576

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.24188
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    4Q91, 4Q9G, 4Q9P, 4QAL, 4QBC, 4QBV, 4QC4

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Buried free-cysteine (Cys) residues can contribute to an irreversible unfolding pathway that promotes protein aggregation, increases immunogenic potential, and significantly reduces protein functional half-life. Consequently, mutation of buried free-Cys residues can result in significant improvement in the storage, reconstitution, and pharmacokinetic properties of protein-based therapeutics. Mutational design to eliminate buried free-Cys residues typically follows one of two common heuristics: either substitution by Ser (polar and isosteric), or substitution by Ala or Val (hydrophobic); however, a detailed structural and thermodynamic understanding of Cys mutations is lacking. We report a comprehensive structure and stability study of Ala, Ser, Thr, and Val mutations at each of the three buried free-Cys positions (Cys16, Cys83, and Cys117) in fibroblast growth factor-1. Mutation was almost universally destabilizing, indicating a general optimization for the wild-type Cys, including van der Waals and H-bond interactions. Structural response to Cys mutation characteristically involved changes to maintain, or effectively substitute, local H-bond interactions-by either structural collapse to accommodate the smaller oxygen radius of Ser/Thr, or conversely, expansion to enable inclusion of novel H-bonding solvent. Despite the diverse structural effects, the least destabilizing average substitution at each position was Ala, and not isosteric Ser.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32306-4300.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Fibroblast growth factor 1
A, B
146Homo sapiensMutation(s): 1 
Gene Names: FGF1FGFA
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P05230 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P05230 
Go to UniProtKB:  P05230
PHAROS:  P05230
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP05230
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.49 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.182 
  • R-Value Work: 0.162 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.162 
  • Space Group: C 2 2 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 73.493α = 90
b = 95.223β = 90
c = 106.021γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
HKL-2000data collection
PHENIXmodel building
HKL-2000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2015-03-11
    Type: Initial release