Crystal Structures of the Novel Cytosolic 5'-Nucleotidase IIIB Explain Its Preference for m7GMPMonecke, T., Buschmann, J., Neumann, P., Wahle, E., Ficner, R.
(2014) Plos One 9: e90915-e90915
- PubMed: 24603684
- DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090915
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:  4NWI
- PubMed Abstract:
5'-nucleotidases catalyze the hydrolytic dephosphorylation of nucleoside monophosphates. As catabolic enzymes they contribute significantly to the regulation of cellular nucleotide levels; misregulation of nucleotide metabolism and nucleotidase defic ...
5'-nucleotidases catalyze the hydrolytic dephosphorylation of nucleoside monophosphates. As catabolic enzymes they contribute significantly to the regulation of cellular nucleotide levels; misregulation of nucleotide metabolism and nucleotidase deficiencies are associated with a number of diseases. The seven human 5'-nucleotidases differ with respect to substrate specificity and cellular localization. Recently, the novel cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase III-like protein, or cN-IIIB, has been characterized in human and Drosophila. cN-IIIB exhibits a strong substrate preference for the modified nucleotide 7-methylguanosine monophosphate but the structural reason for this preference was unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of cN-IIIB from Drosophila melanogaster bound to the reaction products 7-methylguanosine or cytidine. The structural data reveal that the cytosine- and 7-methylguanine moieties of the products are stacked between two aromatic residues in a coplanar but off-centered position. 7-methylguanosine is specifically bound through π-π interactions and distinguished from unmodified guanosine by additional cation-π coulomb interactions between the aromatic side chains and the positively charged 7-methylguanine. Notably, the base is further stabilized by T-shaped edge-to-face stacking of an additional tryptophan packing perpendicularly against the purine ring and forming, together with the other aromates, an aromatic slot. The structural data in combination with site-directed mutagenesis experiments reveal the molecular basis for the broad substrate specificity of cN-IIIB but also explain the substrate preference for 7-methylguanosine monophosphate. Analyzing the substrate specificities of cN-IIIB and the main pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase cN-IIIA by mutagenesis studies, we show that cN-IIIA dephosphorylates the purine m7GMP as well, hence redefining its substrate spectrum. Docking calculations with cN-IIIA and m7GMP as well as biochemical data reveal that Asn69 does not generally exclude the turnover of purine substrates thus correcting previous suggestions.
Abteilung für Molekulare Strukturbiologie, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Genetik, Göttinger Zentrum für Molekulare Biowissenschaften, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.