A Conserved Hydrogen-Bonding Network of P2 bis-Tetrahydrofuran-Containing HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors (PIs) with a Protease Active-Site Amino Acid Backbone Aids in Their Activity against PI-Resistant HIV.Yedidi, R.S., Garimella, H., Aoki, M., Aoki-Ogata, H., Desai, D.V., Chang, S.B., Davis, D.A., Fyvie, W.S., Kaufman, J.D., Smith, D.W., Das, D., Wingfield, P.T., Maeda, K., Ghosh, A.K., Mitsuya, H.
(2014) Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58: 3679-3688
- PubMed: 24752271
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00107-14
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
4NJS, 4NJT, 4NJU, 4NJV
- PubMed Abstract:
In the present study, GRL008, a novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI), and darunavir (DRV), both of which contain a P2-bis-tetrahydrofuranyl urethane (bis-THF) moiety, were found to exert potent antiviral activity (50% effective concentrations [EC50s], 0.029 and 0.002 μM, respectively) against a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of HIV-1 (HIVA02) compared to ritonavir (RTV; EC50, >1.0 μM) and tipranavir (TPV; EC50, 0.364 μM). Additionally, GRL008 showed potent antiviral activity against an HIV-1 variant selected in the presence of DRV over 20 passages (HIVDRV(R)P20), with a 2.6-fold increase in its EC50 (0.097 μM) compared to its corresponding EC50 (0.038 μM) against wild-type HIV-1NL4-3 (HIVWT). Based on X-ray crystallographic analysis, both GRL008 and DRV showed strong hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) with the backbone-amide nitrogen/carbonyl oxygen atoms of conserved active-site amino acids G27, D29, D30, and D30' of HIVA02 protease (PRA02) and wild-type PR in their corresponding crystal structures, while TPV lacked H-bonds with G27 and D30' due to an absence of polar groups. The P2' thiazolyl moiety of RTV showed two conformations in the crystal structure of the PRA02-RTV complex, one of which showed loss of contacts in the S2' binding pocket of PRA02, supporting RTV's compromised antiviral activity (EC50, >1 μM). Thus, the conserved H-bonding network of P2-bis-THF-containing GRL008 with the backbone of G27, D29, D30, and D30' most likely contributes to its persistently greater antiviral activity against HIVWT, HIVA02, and HIVDRV(R)P20.
Experimental Retrovirology Section, HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.