4MB8

Evolutionary history and metabolic insights of ancient mammalian uricases


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.4009 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.220 
  • R-Value Work: 0.174 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.4 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Evolutionary history and metabolic insights of ancient mammalian uricases.

Kratzer, J.T.Lanaspa, M.A.Murphy, M.N.Cicerchi, C.Graves, C.L.Tipton, P.A.Ortlund, E.A.Johnson, R.J.Gaucher, E.A.

(2014) Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 111: 3763-3768

  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1320393111

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Uricase is an enzyme involved in purine catabolism and is found in all three domains of life. Curiously, uricase is not functional in some organisms despite its role in converting highly insoluble uric acid into 5-hydroxyisourate. Of particular inter ...

    Uricase is an enzyme involved in purine catabolism and is found in all three domains of life. Curiously, uricase is not functional in some organisms despite its role in converting highly insoluble uric acid into 5-hydroxyisourate. Of particular interest is the observation that apes, including humans, cannot oxidize uric acid, and it appears that multiple, independent evolutionary events led to the silencing or pseudogenization of the uricase gene in ancestral apes. Various arguments have been made to suggest why natural selection would allow the accumulation of uric acid despite the physiological consequences of crystallized monosodium urate acutely causing liver/kidney damage or chronically causing gout. We have applied evolutionary models to understand the history of primate uricases by resurrecting ancestral mammalian intermediates before the pseudogenization events of this gene family. Resurrected proteins reveal that ancestral uricases have steadily decreased in activity since the last common ancestor of mammals gave rise to descendent primate lineages. We were also able to determine the 3D distribution of amino acid replacements as they accumulated during evolutionary history by crystallizing a mammalian uricase protein. Further, ancient and modern uricases were stably transfected into HepG2 liver cells to test one hypothesis that uricase pseudogenization allowed ancient frugivorous apes to rapidly convert fructose into fat. Finally, pharmacokinetics of an ancient uricase injected in rodents suggest that our integrated approach provides the foundation for an evolutionarily-engineered enzyme capable of treating gout and preventing tumor lysis syndrome in human patients.


    Organizational Affiliation

    School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Uricase
A, B, C, D
304Canis lupus familiarisMutation(s): 13 
Gene Names: UOX
EC: 1.7.3.3
Find proteins for Q5FZI9 (Canis lupus familiaris)
Go to UniProtKB:  Q5FZI9
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
ACT
Query on ACT

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
B, D
ACETATE ION
C2 H3 O2
QTBSBXVTEAMEQO-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.4009 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.220 
  • R-Value Work: 0.174 
  • Space Group: P 61
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 143.778α = 90.00
b = 143.778β = 90.00
c = 138.870γ = 120.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
PHENIXrefinement
DENZOdata reduction
PHASERphasing
SCALEPACKdata scaling
SERGUIdata collection
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2014-02-05
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2014-03-19
    Type: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2014-03-26
    Type: Database references
  • Version 1.3: 2014-07-02
    Type: Source and taxonomy
  • Version 1.4: 2017-11-15
    Type: Refinement description