4KM4

E. coli alkaline phosphatase mutant S102G/R166S in complex with inorganic phosphate


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.8 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.296 
  • R-Value Work: 0.232 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.0 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Ground state destabilization by anionic nucleophiles contributes to the activity of phosphoryl transfer enzymes.

Andrews, L.D.Fenn, T.D.Herschlag, D.

(2013) Plos Biol. 11: e1001599-e1001599

  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001599

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Enzymes stabilize transition states of reactions while limiting binding to ground states, as is generally required for any catalyst. Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) and other nonspecific phosphatases are some of Nature's most impressive catalysts, achievin ...

    Enzymes stabilize transition states of reactions while limiting binding to ground states, as is generally required for any catalyst. Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) and other nonspecific phosphatases are some of Nature's most impressive catalysts, achieving preferential transition state over ground state stabilization of more than 10²²-fold while utilizing interactions with only the five atoms attached to the transferred phosphorus. We tested a model that AP achieves a portion of this preference by destabilizing ground state binding via charge repulsion between the anionic active site nucleophile, Ser102, and the negatively charged phosphate monoester substrate. Removal of the Ser102 alkoxide by mutation to glycine or alanine increases the observed Pi affinity by orders of magnitude at pH 8.0. To allow precise and quantitative comparisons, the ionic form of bound P(i) was determined from pH dependencies of the binding of Pi and tungstate, a P(i) analog lacking titratable protons over the pH range of 5-11, and from the ³¹P chemical shift of bound P(i). The results show that the Pi trianion binds with an exceptionally strong femtomolar affinity in the absence of Ser102, show that its binding is destabilized by ≥10⁸-fold by the Ser102 alkoxide, and provide direct evidence for ground state destabilization. Comparisons of X-ray crystal structures of AP with and without Ser102 reveal the same active site and P(i) binding geometry upon removal of Ser102, suggesting that the destabilization does not result from a major structural rearrangement upon mutation of Ser102. Analogous Pi binding measurements with a protein tyrosine phosphatase suggest the generality of this ground state destabilization mechanism. Our results have uncovered an important contribution of anionic nucleophiles to phosphoryl transfer catalysis via ground state electrostatic destabilization and an enormous capacity of the AP active site for specific and strong recognition of the phosphoryl group in the transition state.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Alkaline phosphatase
A, B
445Escherichia coli (strain K12)Mutation(s): 2 
Gene Names: phoA
EC: 3.1.3.1
Find proteins for P00634 (Escherichia coli (strain K12))
Go to UniProtKB:  P00634
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
PO4
Query on PO4

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
PHOSPHATE ION
O4 P
NBIIXXVUZAFLBC-UHFFFAOYSA-K
 Ligand Interaction
ZN
Query on ZN

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
ZINC ION
Zn
PTFCDOFLOPIGGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.8 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.296 
  • R-Value Work: 0.232 
  • Space Group: P 63 2 2
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 160.935α = 90.00
b = 160.935β = 90.00
c = 139.549γ = 120.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
Blu-Icedata collection
HKL-2000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling
FFXrefinement
PHASERphasing

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2013-07-24
    Type: Initial release