Crystal structure of human estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) in complex with inactive cofactor PAP and metabolite of brominated flame retardant 3OH BDE47 (3-hydroxyl bromodiphenyl ether)

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.05 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.235 
  • R-Value Work: 0.185 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.187 

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This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history


Mimicking of Estradiol Binding by Flame Retardants and Their Metabolites: A Crystallographic Analysis.

Gosavi, R.A.Knudsen, G.A.Birnbaum, L.S.Pedersen, L.C.

(2013) Environ Health Perspect 121: 1194-1199

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306902
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    4JVL, 4JVM, 4JVN

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), used in many types of consumer goods, are being studied because of concerns about possible health effects related to endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and neurotoxicity. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), the most widely used BFR, and human metabolites of certain congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ether (e.g., 3-OH-BDE-47) have been suggested to inhibit estrogen sulfotransferase, potentially affecting estrogen metabolism. Our primary goal was to understand the structural mechanism for inhibition of the hormone-metabolizing enzyme estrogen sulfotransferase by certain BFRs. We also sought to understand various factors that facilitate the binding of flame retardants in the enzyme binding pocket. We used X-ray crystallography to obtain atomic detail of the binding modes of TBBPA and 3-OH-BDE-47 to estrogen sulfotransferase for comparison with binding of the endogenous substrate estradiol. The crystal structures reveal how BFRs mimic estradiol binding as well as the various interactions between the compounds and protein residues that facilitate its binding. In addition, the structures provide insights into the ability of the sulfotransferase substrate binding pocket to accommodate a range of halogenated compounds that satisfy minimal structural criteria. Our results show how BFRs or their metabolites can bind to and inhibit a key hormone-metabolizing enzyme, potentially causing endocrine disruption.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Laboratory of Structural Biology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, North Carolina, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Estrogen sulfotransferase
A, B
294Homo sapiensMutation(s): 1 
Gene Names: STESULT1E1
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P49888 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P49888 
Go to UniProtKB:  P49888
PHAROS:  P49888
GTEx:  ENSG00000109193 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP49888
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 4 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on YUG

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
C [auth A],
F [auth B]
C12 H6 Br4 O2
Query on A3P

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
D [auth A],
G [auth B]
C10 H15 N5 O10 P2
Query on EDO

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
H [auth B],
J [auth B]
C2 H6 O2
Query on NA

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
E [auth A],
I [auth B]
Binding Affinity Annotations 
IDSourceBinding Affinity
YUG Binding MOAD:  4JVN IC50: 23 (nM) from 1 assay(s)
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.05 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.235 
  • R-Value Work: 0.185 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.187 
  • Space Group: P 1 21 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 62.676α = 90
b = 96.989β = 92.44
c = 61.389γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
HKL-2000data collection
HKL-2000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2013-09-04
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2013-10-16
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2023-09-20
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations, Refinement description