4GLL

Crystal structure of human UDP-xylose synthase.


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.5 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.223 
  • R-Value Work: 0.178 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Human UDP-alpha-d-xylose Synthase and Escherichia coli ArnA Conserve a Conformational Shunt That Controls Whether Xylose or 4-Keto-Xylose Is Produced.

Polizzi, S.J.Walsh Jr., R.M.Peeples, W.B.Lim, J.M.Wells, L.Wood, Z.A.

(2012) Biochemistry 51: 8844-8855

  • DOI: 10.1021/bi301135b

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Human UDP-α-D-xylose synthase (hUXS) is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family of nucleotide-sugar modifying enzymes. hUXS contains a bound NAD(+) cofactor that it recycles by first oxidizing UDP-α-D-glucuronic acid (UGA), and the ...

    Human UDP-α-D-xylose synthase (hUXS) is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family of nucleotide-sugar modifying enzymes. hUXS contains a bound NAD(+) cofactor that it recycles by first oxidizing UDP-α-D-glucuronic acid (UGA), and then reducing the UDP-α-D-4-keto-xylose (UX4O) to produce UDP-α-D-xylose (UDX). Despite the observation that purified hUXS contains a bound cofactor, it has been reported that exogenous NAD(+) will stimulate enzyme activity. Here we show that a small fraction of hUXS releases the NADH and UX4O intermediates as products during turnover. The resulting apoenzyme can be rescued by exogenous NAD(+), explaining the apparent stimulatory effect of added cofactor. The slow release of NADH and UX4O as side products by hUXS is reminiscent of the Escherichia coli UGA decarboxylase (ArnA), a related enzyme that produces NADH and UX4O as products. We report that ArnA can rebind NADH and UX4O to slowly make UDX. This means that both enzymes share the same catalytic machinery, but differ in the preferred final product. We present a bifurcated rate equation that explains how the substrate is shunted to the distinct final products. Using a new crystal structure of hUXS, we identify the structural elements of the shunt and propose that the local unfolding of the active site directs reactants toward the preferred products. Finally, we present evidence that the release of NADH and UX4O involves a cooperative conformational change that is conserved in both enzymes.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, United States.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
UDP-glucuronic acid decarboxylase 1
A, B
337Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: UXS1
EC: 4.1.1.35
Find proteins for Q8NBZ7 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: UXS1
Go to UniProtKB:  Q8NBZ7
Small Molecules
Ligands 3 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
SO4
Query on SO4

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
SULFATE ION
O4 S
QAOWNCQODCNURD-UHFFFAOYSA-L
 Ligand Interaction
NAD
Query on NAD

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
NICOTINAMIDE-ADENINE-DINUCLEOTIDE
C21 H27 N7 O14 P2
BAWFJGJZGIEFAR-NNYOXOHSSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
GAI
Query on GAI

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
GUANIDINE
C H5 N3
ZRALSGWEFCBTJO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.5 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.223 
  • R-Value Work: 0.178 
  • Space Group: P 32 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 125.610α = 90.00
b = 125.610β = 90.00
c = 98.920γ = 120.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
REFMACrefinement
XDSdata scaling
CNSphasing
CNSrefinement
XDSdata reduction

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2012-09-05
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2012-11-14
    Type: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2018-05-02
    Type: Data collection, Database references