4GH8

Crystal structure of a 'humanized' E. coli dihydrofolate reductase


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.85 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.245 
  • R-Value Work: 0.203 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Functional significance of evolving protein sequence in dihydrofolate reductase from bacteria to humans.

Liu, C.T.Hanoian, P.French, J.B.Pringle, T.H.Hammes-Schiffer, S.Benkovic, S.J.

(2013) Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 110: 10159-10164

  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1307130110

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • With the rapidly growing wealth of genomic data, experimental inquiries on the functional significance of important divergence sites in protein evolution are becoming more accessible. Here we trace the evolution of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and ...

    With the rapidly growing wealth of genomic data, experimental inquiries on the functional significance of important divergence sites in protein evolution are becoming more accessible. Here we trace the evolution of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and identify multiple key divergence sites among 233 species between humans and bacteria. We connect these sites, experimentally and computationally, to changes in the enzyme's binding properties and catalytic efficiency. One of the identified evolutionarily important sites is the N23PP modification (∼mid-Devonian, 415-385 Mya), which alters the conformational states of the active site loop in Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase and negatively impacts catalysis. This enzyme activity was restored with the inclusion of an evolutionarily significant lid domain (G51PEKN in E. coli enzyme; ∼2.4 Gya). Guided by this evolutionary genomic analysis, we generated a human-like E. coli dihydrofolate reductase variant through three simple mutations despite only 26% sequence identity between native human and E. coli DHFRs. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the overall conformational motions of the protein within a common scaffold are retained throughout evolution, although subtle changes to the equilibrium conformational sampling altered the free energy barrier of the enzymatic reaction in some cases. The data presented here provide a glimpse into the evolutionary trajectory of functional DHFR through its protein sequence space that lead to the diverged binding and catalytic properties of the E. coli and human enzymes.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Dihydrofolate reductase
B, A
162Escherichia coli (strain K12)Mutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: folA (tmrA)
EC: 1.5.1.3
Find proteins for P0ABQ4 (Escherichia coli (strain K12))
Go to UniProtKB:  P0ABQ4
Small Molecules
Ligands 3 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
CA
Query on CA

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
CALCIUM ION
Ca
BHPQYMZQTOCNFJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
MTX
Query on MTX

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Download CCD File 
A, B
METHOTREXATE
C20 H22 N8 O5
FBOZXECLQNJBKD-ZDUSSCGKSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
NDP
Query on NDP

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
NADPH DIHYDRO-NICOTINAMIDE-ADENINE-DINUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHATE
C21 H30 N7 O17 P3
ACFIXJIJDZMPPO-NNYOXOHSSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
External Ligand Annotations 
IDBinding Affinity (Sequence Identity %)
MTXEC50: 1 nM (96) BINDINGDB
MTXIC50: 3 - 8.8 nM (96) BINDINGDB
NDPKd: 2600 nM BINDINGMOAD
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.85 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.245 
  • R-Value Work: 0.203 
  • Space Group: P 1 21 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 52.245α = 90.00
b = 63.773β = 106.82
c = 62.439γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
SCALEPACKdata scaling
MOLREPphasing
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
REFMACrefinement
DENZOdata reduction
ADSCdata collection

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2013-06-05
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2013-07-03
    Type: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2017-11-15
    Type: Refinement description