Crystal structure of the topoisomerase II poison 9-amino-[N-(2-dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide bound to the DNA hexanucleotide d(CGTACG)2.Adams, A., Guss, J.M., Collyer, C.A., Denny, W.A., Wakelin, L.P.
(1999) Biochemistry 38: 9221-9233
- PubMed: 10413496
- DOI: 10.1021/bi990352m
- PubMed Abstract:
The structure of the complex formed between d(CGTACG)(2) and the antitumor agent 9-amino-[N-(2-dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide has been solved to a resolution of 1.6 A using X-ray crystallography. The complex crystallized in space group P6 ...
The structure of the complex formed between d(CGTACG)(2) and the antitumor agent 9-amino-[N-(2-dimethylamino)ethyl]acridine-4-carboxamide has been solved to a resolution of 1.6 A using X-ray crystallography. The complex crystallized in space group P6(4) with unit cell dimensions a = b = 30.2 A and c = 39.7 A, alpha = beta = 90 degrees, gamma = 120 degrees. The asymmetric unit contains a single strand of DNA, 1. 5 drug molecules, and 29 water molecules. The final structure has an overall R factor of 19.3%. A drug molecule intercalates between each of the CpG dinucleotide steps with its side chain lying in the major groove, and the protonated dimethylamino group partially occupies positions close to ( approximately 3.0 A) the N7 and O6 atoms of guanine G2. A water molecule forms bridging hydrogen bonds between the 4-carboxamide NH and the phosphate group of the same guanine. Sugar rings adopt the C2'-endo conformation except for cytosine C1 which moves to C3'-endo, thereby preventing steric collision between its C2' methylene group and the intercalated acridine ring. The intercalation cavity is opened by rotations of the main chain torsion angles alpha and gamma at guanines G2 and G6. Intercalation perturbs helix winding throughout the hexanucleotide compared to B-DNA, steps 1 and 2 being unwound by 8 degrees and 12 degrees, respectively, whereas the central TpA step is overwound by 17 degrees. An additional drug molecule, lying with the 2-fold axis in the plane of the acridine ring, is located at the end of each DNA helix, linking it to the next duplex to form a continuously stacked structure. The protonated N,N-dimethylamino group of this "end-stacked" drug hydrogen bonds to the N7 atom of guanine G6. In both drug molecules, the 4-carboxamide group is internally hydrogen bonded to the protonated N-10 atom of the acridine ring. The structure of the intercalated complex enables a rationalization of the known structure-activity relationships for inhibition of topoisomerase II activity, cytotoxicity, and DNA-binding kinetics for 9-aminoacridine-4-carboxamides.
School of Chemistry, School of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.