3Q8X

Structure of a toxin-antitoxin system bound to its substrate


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.70 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.263 
  • R-Value Work: 0.210 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.212 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

A novel mechanism of programmed cell death in bacteria by toxin-antitoxin systems corrupts peptidoglycan synthesis.

Mutschler, H.Gebhardt, M.Shoeman, R.L.Meinhart, A.

(2011) PLoS Biol 9: e1001033-e1001033

  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001033
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    3Q8X

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Most genomes of bacteria contain toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. These gene systems encode a toxic protein and its cognate antitoxin. Upon antitoxin degradation, the toxin induces cell stasis or death. TA systems have been linked with numerous functions, including growth modulation, genome maintenance, and stress response ...

    Most genomes of bacteria contain toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. These gene systems encode a toxic protein and its cognate antitoxin. Upon antitoxin degradation, the toxin induces cell stasis or death. TA systems have been linked with numerous functions, including growth modulation, genome maintenance, and stress response. Members of the epsilon/zeta TA family are found throughout the genomes of pathogenic bacteria and were shown not only to stabilize resistance plasmids but also to promote virulence. The broad distribution of epsilon/zeta systems implies that zeta toxins utilize a ubiquitous bacteriotoxic mechanism. However, whereas all other TA families known to date poison macromolecules involved in translation or replication, the target of zeta toxins remained inscrutable. We used in vivo techniques such as microscropy and permeability assays to show that pneumococcal zeta toxin PezT impairs cell wall synthesis and triggers autolysis in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, we demonstrated in vitro that zeta toxins in general phosphorylate the ubiquitous peptidoglycan precursor uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG) and that this activity is counteracted by binding of antitoxin. After identification of the product we verified the kinase activity in vivo by analyzing metabolite extracts of cells poisoned by PezT using high pressure liquid chromatograpy (HPLC). We further show that phosphorylated UNAG inhibitis MurA, the enzyme catalyzing the initial step in bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Additionally, we provide what is to our knowledge the first crystal structure of a zeta toxin bound to its substrate. We show that zeta toxins are novel kinases that poison bacteria through global inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis. This provides a fundamental understanding of how epsilon/zeta TA systems stabilize mobile genetic elements. Additionally, our results imply a mechanism that connects activity of zeta toxin PezT to virulence of pneumococcal infections. Finally, we discuss how phosphorylated UNAG likely poisons additional pathways of bacterial cell wall synthesis, making it an attractive lead compound for development of new antibiotics.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Biomolecular Mechanisms, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg, Germany.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Antidote of epsilon-zeta postsegregational killing systemA, C90Streptococcus pyogenesMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: epsilon
Find proteins for Q57231 (Streptococcus pyogenes)
Explore Q57231 
Go to UniProtKB:  Q57231
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Zeta-toxinB, D287Streptococcus pyogenesMutation(s): 0 
EC: 2.7.1.176
Find proteins for Q54944 (Streptococcus pyogenes)
Explore Q54944 
Go to UniProtKB:  Q54944
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
UD1
Query on UD1

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
G [auth D]URIDINE-DIPHOSPHATE-N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE
C17 H27 N3 O17 P2
LFTYTUAZOPRMMI-CFRASDGPSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
SO4
Query on SO4

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
E [auth B], F [auth D]SULFATE ION
O4 S
QAOWNCQODCNURD-UHFFFAOYSA-L
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.70 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.263 
  • R-Value Work: 0.210 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.212 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 59.8α = 90
b = 79.99β = 90
c = 195.17γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
REFMACrefinement
CNSrefinement
XDSdata scaling
XDSdata reduction
CNSphasing

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2011-03-09
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-11-02
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.3: 2019-07-17
    Changes: Data collection, Refinement description