Molecular basis for cyclooxygenase inhibition by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug naproxen.Duggan, K.C., Walters, M.J., Musee, J., Harp, J.M., Kiefer, J.R., Oates, J.A., Marnett, L.J.
(2010) J.Biol.Chem. 285: 34950-34959
- PubMed: 20810665
- DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M110.162982
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Naproxen ((S)-6-methoxy-α-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid) is a powerful non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is extensively used as a prescription and over-the-counter medication. Naproxen exhibits gastrointestinal toxicity, but i ...
Naproxen ((S)-6-methoxy-α-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid) is a powerful non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is extensively used as a prescription and over-the-counter medication. Naproxen exhibits gastrointestinal toxicity, but its cardiovascular toxicity may be reduced compared with other drugs in its class. Despite the fact that naproxen has been marketed for many years, the molecular basis of its interaction with cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes is unknown. We performed a detailed study of naproxen-COX-2 interactions using site-directed mutagenesis, structure-activity analysis, and x-ray crystallography. The results indicate that each of the pendant groups of the naphthyl scaffold are essential for COX inhibition, and only minimal substitutions are tolerated. Mutation of Trp-387 to Phe significantly reduced inhibition by naproxen, a result that appears unique to this inhibitor. Substitution of S or CH(2) for the O atom of the p-methoxy group yielded analogs that were not affected by the W387F substitution and that exhibited increased COX-2 selectivity relative to naproxen. Crystallization and x-ray analysis yielded structures of COX-2 complexed to naproxen and its methylthio analog at 1.7 and 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. The combination of mutagenesis, structure analysis, and x-ray crystallography provided comprehensive information on the unique interactions responsible for naproxen binding to COX-2.
AB Hancock Jr Memorial Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt Institute for Chemical Biology, the Center in Molecular Toxicology, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-0146.