3U8R

Human thrombin complexed with D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-Ile


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.47 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.161 
  • R-Value Work: 0.129 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.131 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report


Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 


This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

Rational design and characterization of D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-derived direct thrombin inhibitors.

Figueiredo, A.C.Clement, C.C.Zakia, S.Gingold, J.Philipp, M.Pereira, P.J.

(2012) PLoS One 7: e34354-e34354

  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034354
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    3U69, 3U8O, 3U8R, 3U8T

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • The tremendous social and economic impact of thrombotic disorders, together with the considerable risks associated to the currently available therapies, prompt for the development of more efficient and safer anticoagulants. Novel peptide-based thrombin inhibitors were identified using in silico structure-based design and further validated in vitro ...

    The tremendous social and economic impact of thrombotic disorders, together with the considerable risks associated to the currently available therapies, prompt for the development of more efficient and safer anticoagulants. Novel peptide-based thrombin inhibitors were identified using in silico structure-based design and further validated in vitro. The best candidate compounds contained both L- and D-amino acids, with the general sequence D-Phe(P3)-Pro(P2)-D-Arg(P1)-P1'-CONH₂. The P1' position was scanned with L- and D-isomers of natural or unnatural amino acids, covering the major chemical classes. The most potent non-covalent and proteolysis-resistant inhibitors contain small hydrophobic or polar amino acids (Gly, Ala, Ser, Cys, Thr) at the P1' position. The lead tetrapeptide, D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-D-Thr-CONH₂, competitively inhibits α-thrombin's cleavage of the S2238 chromogenic substrate with a K(i) of 0.92 µM. In order to understand the molecular details of their inhibitory action, the three-dimensional structure of three peptides (with P1' L-isoleucine (fPrI), L-cysteine (fPrC) or D-threonine (fPrt)) in complex with human α-thrombin were determined by X-ray crystallography. All the inhibitors bind in a substrate-like orientation to the active site of the enzyme. The contacts established between the D-Arg residue in position P1 and thrombin are similar to those observed for the L-isomer in other substrates and inhibitors. However, fPrC and fPrt disrupt the active site His57-Ser195 hydrogen bond, while the combination of a P1 D-Arg and a bulkier P1' residue in fPrI induce an unfavorable geometry for the nucleophilic attack of the scissile bond by the catalytic serine. The experimental models explain the observed relative potency of the inhibitors, as well as their stability to proteolysis. Moreover, the newly identified direct thrombin inhibitors provide a novel pharmacophore platform for developing antithrombotic agents by exploring the conformational constrains imposed by the D-stereochemistry of the residues at positions P1 and P1'.


    Organizational Affiliation

    IBMC-Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Thrombin light chainA [auth L]30Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: F2
EC: 3.4.21.5
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P00734 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P00734 
Go to UniProtKB:  P00734
PHAROS:  P00734
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
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Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Thrombin heavy chainB [auth H]259Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: F2
EC: 3.4.21.5
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P00734 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P00734 
Go to UniProtKB:  P00734
PHAROS:  P00734
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
  • Find similar proteins by:  Sequence   |   Structure
Entity ID: 3
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-Ile DERIVED DIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORC [auth I]5synthetic constructMutation(s): 0 
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 6 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
NAG (Subject of Investigation/LOI)
Query on NAG

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
D [auth H]2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose
C8 H15 N O6
OVRNDRQMDRJTHS-FMDGEEDCSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
IOD
Query on IOD

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F [auth H]IODIDE ION
I
XMBWDFGMSWQBCA-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
MRD
Query on MRD

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I [auth H](4R)-2-METHYLPENTANE-2,4-DIOL
C6 H14 O2
SVTBMSDMJJWYQN-RXMQYKEDSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
MPD
Query on MPD

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
H(4S)-2-METHYL-2,4-PENTANEDIOL
C6 H14 O2
SVTBMSDMJJWYQN-YFKPBYRVSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
CL
Query on CL

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G [auth H]CHLORIDE ION
Cl
VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
NA
Query on NA

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E [auth H]SODIUM ION
Na
FKNQFGJONOIPTF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Biologically Interesting Molecules (External Reference) 1 Unique
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 51.563α = 90
b = 76.527β = 90
c = 83.26γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
SCALAdata scaling
PHASERphasing
PHENIXrefinement
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
MOSFLMdata reduction

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment  



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2012-05-23
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2012-12-12
    Changes: Other
  • Version 1.2: 2013-06-05
    Changes: Other
  • Version 1.3: 2020-07-29
    Type: Remediation
    Reason: Carbohydrate remediation
    Changes: Data collection, Derived calculations, Structure summary