A novel, "double-clamp" binding mode for human heme oxygenase-1 inhibition.Rahman, M.N., Vlahakis, J.Z., Vukomanovic, D., Lee, W., Szarek, W.A., Nakatsu, K., Jia, Z.
(2012) Plos One 7: e29514-e29514
- PubMed: 22276118
- DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029514
- PubMed Abstract:
The development of heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors is critical in dissecting and understanding the HO system and for potential therapeutic applications. We have established a program to design and optimize HO inhibitors using structure-activity relati ...
The development of heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors is critical in dissecting and understanding the HO system and for potential therapeutic applications. We have established a program to design and optimize HO inhibitors using structure-activity relationships in conjunction with X-ray crystallographic analyses. One of our previous complex crystal structures revealed a putative secondary hydrophobic binding pocket which could be exploited for a new design strategy by introducing a functional group that would fit into this potential site. To test this hypothesis and gain further insights into the structural basis of inhibitor binding, we have synthesized and characterized 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4,4-diphenyl-2-butanone (QC-308). Using a carbon monoxide (CO) formation assay on rat spleen microsomes, the compound was found to be ∼15 times more potent (IC(50) = 0.27±0.07 µM) than its monophenyl analogue, which is already a potent compound in its own right (QC-65; IC(50) = 4.0±1.8 µM). The crystal structure of hHO-1 with QC-308 revealed that the second phenyl group in the western region of the compound is indeed accommodated by a definitive secondary proximal hydrophobic pocket. Thus, the two phenyl moieties are each stabilized by distinct hydrophobic pockets. This "double-clamp" binding offers additional inhibitor stabilization and provides a new route for improvement of human heme oxygenase inhibitors.
Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.