3SQP

Structure of human glutathione reductase complexed with pyocyanin, an agent with antimalarial activity


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.21 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.182 
  • R-Value Work: 0.144 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

The bacterial redox signaller pyocyanin as an antiplasmodial agent: comparisons with its thioanalog methylene blue.

Kasozi, D.M.Gromer, S.Adler, H.Zocher, K.Rahlfs, S.Wittlin, S.Fritz-Wolf, K.Schirmer, R.H.Becker, K.

(2011) Redox Rep. 16: 154-165

  • DOI: 10.1179/174329211X13049558293678

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • The quorum sensor and signalling molecule pyocyanin (PYO) contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Comparison to phenothiazine drugs suggests that the antimalarial compound methylene blue (MB) can be rega ...

    The quorum sensor and signalling molecule pyocyanin (PYO) contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Comparison to phenothiazine drugs suggests that the antimalarial compound methylene blue (MB) can be regarded as a sulfur analog of PYO. This working hypothesis would explain why the synthetic drug MB behaves as a compound shaped in biological evolution. Here we report on redox-associated biological and biochemical properties of PYO in direct comparison to its synthetic analog MB. We quantitatively describe the reactivity of both compounds toward cellular reductants, the reactivity of their reduced leuco-forms towards O2, and their interactions with FAD-containing disulfide reductases. Furthermore, the interaction of PYO with human glutathione reductase was studied in structural detail by x-ray crystallography, showing that a single PYO molecule binds to the intersubunit cavity of the enzyme. Like MB, also PYO was also found to be active against blood schizonts of the malaria parasite P. falciparum in vitro. Furthermore, both compounds were active against the disease transmitting gametocyte forms of the parasites, which was systematically studied in vitro. As shown for mice, PYO is too toxic to be used as a drug. It may, however, have antimalarial activity in numerous human patients with concomitant Pseudomonas infections. MB, in contrast to PYO, is well tolerated and represents a promising agent for MB-based combination therapies against malaria. Current and future clinical studies can be guided by the comparisons between MB and PYO reported here. Additionally, it is of interest to study if and to what extent the protection from malaria in patients with cystic fibrosis or with severe wound infections is based on PYO produced by Pseudomonas species.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Interdisciplinary Research Center, Giessen, Germany.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial
A, B
478Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: GSR (GLUR, GRD1)
EC: 1.8.1.7
Find proteins for P00390 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: GSR
Go to UniProtKB:  P00390
Small Molecules
Ligands 4 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
SO4
Query on SO4

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Download CCD File 
A, B
SULFATE ION
O4 S
QAOWNCQODCNURD-UHFFFAOYSA-L
 Ligand Interaction
FAD
Query on FAD

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Download CCD File 
A, B
FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE
C27 H33 N9 O15 P2
VWWQXMAJTJZDQX-UYBVJOGSSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
GOL
Query on GOL

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Download CCD File 
A, B
GLYCEROL
GLYCERIN; PROPANE-1,2,3-TRIOL
C3 H8 O3
PEDCQBHIVMGVHV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
3J8
Query on 3J8

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Download CCD File 
A, B
5-methylphenazin-1(5H)-one
Pyocyanin; Pyrocyanine; Sanasin; Sanazin
C13 H10 N2 O
YNCMLFHHXWETLD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
External Ligand Annotations 
IDBinding Affinity (Sequence Identity %)
3J8IC50: 7000 nM BINDINGMOAD
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.21 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.182 
  • R-Value Work: 0.144 
  • Space Group: P 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 62.080α = 68.98
b = 67.370β = 66.81
c = 78.860γ = 62.54
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
PHENIXmodel building
PHENIXphasing
PHENIXrefinement
XDSdata scaling
XDSdata reduction

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2011-09-14
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2014-12-10
    Type: Other