3SQP

Structure of human glutathione reductase complexed with pyocyanin, an agent with antimalarial activity


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.21 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.182 
  • R-Value Work: 0.144 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.146 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

The bacterial redox signaller pyocyanin as an antiplasmodial agent: comparisons with its thioanalog methylene blue.

Kasozi, D.M.Gromer, S.Adler, H.Zocher, K.Rahlfs, S.Wittlin, S.Fritz-Wolf, K.Schirmer, R.H.Becker, K.

(2011) Redox Rep 16: 154-165

  • DOI: 10.1179/174329211X13049558293678
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    3SQP

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • The quorum sensor and signalling molecule pyocyanin (PYO) contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Comparison to phenothiazine drugs suggests that the antimalarial compound methylene blue (MB) can be rega ...

    The quorum sensor and signalling molecule pyocyanin (PYO) contributes significantly to the pathophysiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Comparison to phenothiazine drugs suggests that the antimalarial compound methylene blue (MB) can be regarded as a sulfur analog of PYO. This working hypothesis would explain why the synthetic drug MB behaves as a compound shaped in biological evolution. Here we report on redox-associated biological and biochemical properties of PYO in direct comparison to its synthetic analog MB. We quantitatively describe the reactivity of both compounds toward cellular reductants, the reactivity of their reduced leuco-forms towards O2, and their interactions with FAD-containing disulfide reductases. Furthermore, the interaction of PYO with human glutathione reductase was studied in structural detail by x-ray crystallography, showing that a single PYO molecule binds to the intersubunit cavity of the enzyme. Like MB, also PYO was also found to be active against blood schizonts of the malaria parasite P. falciparum in vitro. Furthermore, both compounds were active against the disease transmitting gametocyte forms of the parasites, which was systematically studied in vitro. As shown for mice, PYO is too toxic to be used as a drug. It may, however, have antimalarial activity in numerous human patients with concomitant Pseudomonas infections. MB, in contrast to PYO, is well tolerated and represents a promising agent for MB-based combination therapies against malaria. Current and future clinical studies can be guided by the comparisons between MB and PYO reported here. Additionally, it is of interest to study if and to what extent the protection from malaria in patients with cystic fibrosis or with severe wound infections is based on PYO produced by Pseudomonas species.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Interdisciplinary Research Center, Giessen, Germany.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Glutathione reductase, mitochondrialA, B478Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: GSRGLURGRD1
EC: 1.8.1.7
Find proteins for P00390 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P00390 
Go to UniProtKB:  P00390
NIH Common Fund Data Resources
PHAROS  P00390
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 4 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
FAD
Query on FAD

Download CCD File 
A, B
FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE
C27 H33 N9 O15 P2
VWWQXMAJTJZDQX-UYBVJOGSSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
3J8
Query on 3J8

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A, B
5-methylphenazin-1(5H)-one
C13 H10 N2 O
YNCMLFHHXWETLD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
SO4
Query on SO4

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A, B
SULFATE ION
O4 S
QAOWNCQODCNURD-UHFFFAOYSA-L
 Ligand Interaction
GOL
Query on GOL

Download CCD File 
A, B
GLYCEROL
C3 H8 O3
PEDCQBHIVMGVHV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
External Ligand Annotations 
IDBinding Affinity (Sequence Identity %)
3J8IC50:  7000   nM  Binding MOAD
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.21 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.182 
  • R-Value Work: 0.144 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.146 
  • Space Group: P 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 62.08α = 68.98
b = 67.37β = 66.81
c = 78.86γ = 62.54
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
PHENIXmodel building
PHENIXrefinement
XDSdata reduction
XDSdata scaling
PHENIXphasing

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2011-09-14
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2014-12-10
    Changes: Other