Crystal structure of RAC1 P29S mutant

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.10 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.285 
  • R-Value Work: 0.238 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.240 

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history


Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma.

Krauthammer, M.Kong, Y.Ha, B.H.Evans, P.Bacchiocchi, A.McCusker, J.P.Cheng, E.Davis, M.J.Goh, G.Choi, M.Ariyan, S.Narayan, D.Dutton-Regester, K.Capatana, A.Holman, E.C.Bosenberg, M.Sznol, M.Kluger, H.M.Brash, D.E.Stern, D.F.Materin, M.A.Lo, R.S.Mane, S.Ma, S.Kidd, K.K.Hayward, N.K.Lifton, R.P.Schlessinger, J.Boggon, T.J.Halaban, R.

(2012) Nat Genet 44: 1006-1014

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2359
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    3SBD, 3SBE, 3TH5

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively in tumors with mutations in BRAF or NRAS. Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas. This activating mutation, the third most frequent in our cohort of sun-exposed melanoma after those of BRAF and NRAS, changes Pro29 to serine (RAC1(P29S)) in the highly conserved switch I domain. Crystal structures, and biochemical and functional studies of RAC1(P29S) showed that the alteration releases the conformational restraint conferred by the conserved proline, causes an increased binding of the protein to downstream effectors, and promotes melanocyte proliferation and migration. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of downstream effectors of RAC1 signaling could be of therapeutic benefit.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1
A, B
187Homo sapiensMutation(s): 1 
Gene Names: RAC1TC25MIG5
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P63000 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P63000 
Go to UniProtKB:  P63000
PHAROS:  P63000
GTEx:  ENSG00000136238 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP63000
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.10 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.285 
  • R-Value Work: 0.238 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.240 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 50.266α = 90
b = 80.021β = 90
c = 94.91γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
CrystalCleardata collection
HKL-2000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2012-07-18
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2012-08-29
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2012-09-19
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.3: 2023-09-13
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations, Refinement description