Structural basis for the bifunctionality of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase.Fushinobu, S., Nishimasu, H., Hattori, D., Song, H.-J., Wakagi, T.
(2011) Nature 478: 538-541
- PubMed: 21983966
- DOI: 10.1038/nature10457
- PubMed Abstract:
Enzymes catalyse specific reactions and are essential for maintaining life. Although some are referred to as being bifunctional, they consist of either two distinct catalytic domains or a single domain that displays promiscuous substrate specificity. ...
Enzymes catalyse specific reactions and are essential for maintaining life. Although some are referred to as being bifunctional, they consist of either two distinct catalytic domains or a single domain that displays promiscuous substrate specificity. Thus, one enzyme active site is generally responsible for one biochemical reaction. In contrast to this conventional concept, archaeal fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) aldolase/phosphatase (FBPA/P) consists of a single catalytic domain, but catalyses two chemically distinct reactions of gluconeogenesis: (1) the reversible aldol condensation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GA3P) to FBP; (2) the dephosphorylation of FBP to fructose-6-phosphate (F6P). Thus, FBPA/P is fundamentally different from ordinary enzymes whose active sites are responsible for a specific reaction. However, the molecular mechanism by which FBPA/P achieves its unusual bifunctionality remains unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of FBPA/P at 1.5-Å resolution in the aldolase form, where a critical lysine residue forms a Schiff base with DHAP. A structural comparison of the aldolase form with a previously determined phosphatase form revealed a dramatic conformational change in the active site, demonstrating that FBPA/P metamorphoses its active-site architecture to exhibit dual activities. Thus, our findings expand the conventional concept that one enzyme catalyses one biochemical reaction.
Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.