3OMV

Crystal structure of c-raf (raf-1)


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 4 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.364 
  • R-Value Work: 0.280 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

RAF inhibitors prime wild-type RAF to activate the MAPK pathway and enhance growth.

Hatzivassiliou, G.Song, K.Yen, I.Brandhuber, B.J.Anderson, D.J.Alvarado, R.Ludlam, M.J.Stokoe, D.Gloor, S.L.Vigers, G.Morales, T.Aliagas, I.Liu, B.Sideris, S.Hoeflich, K.P.Jaiswal, B.S.Seshagiri, S.Koeppen, H.Belvin, M.Friedman, L.S.Malek, S.

(2010) Nature 464: 431-435

  • DOI: 10.1038/nature08833
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Activating mutations in KRAS and BRAF are found in more than 30% of all human tumours and 40% of melanoma, respectively, thus targeting this pathway could have broad therapeutic effects. Small molecule ATP-competitive RAF kinase inhibitors have poten ...

    Activating mutations in KRAS and BRAF are found in more than 30% of all human tumours and 40% of melanoma, respectively, thus targeting this pathway could have broad therapeutic effects. Small molecule ATP-competitive RAF kinase inhibitors have potent antitumour effects on mutant BRAF(V600E) tumours but, in contrast to mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors, are not potent against RAS mutant tumour models, despite RAF functioning as a key effector downstream of RAS and upstream of MEK. Here we show that ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors have two opposing mechanisms of action depending on the cellular context. In BRAF(V600E) tumours, RAF inhibitors effectively block the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway and decrease tumour growth. Notably, in KRAS mutant and RAS/RAF wild-type tumours, RAF inhibitors activate the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway in a RAS-dependent manner, thus enhancing tumour growth in some xenograft models. Inhibitor binding activates wild-type RAF isoforms by inducing dimerization, membrane localization and interaction with RAS-GTP. These events occur independently of kinase inhibition and are, instead, linked to direct conformational effects of inhibitors on the RAF kinase domain. On the basis of these findings, we demonstrate that ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors can have opposing functions as inhibitors or activators of signalling pathways, depending on the cellular context. Furthermore, this work provides new insights into the therapeutic use of ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Genentech, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. hatzivassiliou.georgia@gene.com




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase
A, B
307Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: RAF1 (RAF)
EC: 2.7.11.1
Find proteins for P04049 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: RAF1
Go to UniProtKB:  P04049
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
SM5
Query on SM5

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B
(1E)-5-(1-piperidin-4-yl-3-pyridin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one oxime
C22 H23 N5 O
KWEFZSZCLBHIEQ-YYADALCUSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 4 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.364 
  • R-Value Work: 0.280 
  • Space Group: P 41 21 2
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 99.570α = 90.00
b = 99.570β = 90.00
c = 161.422γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
REFMACrefinement
MOLREPphasing
MOSFLMdata reduction
SCALAdata scaling
CrystalCleardata collection

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2010-09-15
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Type: Version format compliance