Human cytochrome c G41S

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.90 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.247 
  • R-Value Work: 0.172 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.176 

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The Proapoptotic G41S Mutation to Human Cytochrome c Alters the Heme Electronic Structure and Increases the Electron Self-Exchange Rate.

Liptak, M.D.Fagerlund, R.D.Ledgerwood, E.C.Wilbanks, S.M.Bren, K.L.

(2011) J Am Chem Soc 133: 1153-1155

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ja106328k
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    The naturally occurring G41S mutation to human (Hs) cytochrome (cyt) c enhances apoptotic activity based upon previous in vitro and in vivo studies, but the molecular mechanism underlying this enhancement remains unknown. Here, X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to identify the structural and electronic differences between wild-type (WT) and G41S Hs cyt c. S41 is part of the hydrogen bonding network for propionate 7 of heme pyrrole ring A in the X-ray structure of G41S Hs cyt c and, compared to WT, G41S Hs cyt c has increased spin density on pyrrole ring C and a faster electron self-exchange rate. DFT calculations illustrate an electronic mechanism where structural changes near ring A can result in electronic changes at ring C. Since ring C is part of the solvent-exposed protein surface, we propose that this heme electronic structure change may ultimately be responsible for the enhanced proapoptotic activity of G41S Hs cyt c.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, United States.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Cytochrome c
A, B, C, D
104Homo sapiensMutation(s): 1 
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P99999 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P99999 
Go to UniProtKB:  P99999
PHAROS:  P99999
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP99999
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.90 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.247 
  • R-Value Work: 0.172 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.176 
  • Space Group: C 1 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 184.632α = 90
b = 62.693β = 89.78
c = 35.47γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
CrystalCleardata collection
d*TREKdata reduction
d*TREKdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2011-03-09
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 2.0: 2019-10-02
    Changes: Atomic model, Data collection, Derived calculations, Non-polymer description, Structure summary