3MBG

Crystal Structure of Human Augmenter of Liver Regeneration (ALR)


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.85 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.231 
  • R-Value Work: 0.189 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Structure of the human sulfhydryl oxidase augmenter of liver regeneration and characterization of a human mutation causing an autosomal recessive myopathy .

Daithankar, V.N.Schaefer, S.A.Dong, M.Bahnson, B.J.Thorpe, C.

(2010) Biochemistry 49: 6737-6745

  • DOI: 10.1021/bi100912m

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • The sulfhydryl oxidase augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) binds FAD in a helix-rich domain that presents a CxxC disulfide proximal to the isoalloxazine ring of the flavin. Head-to-tail interchain disulfide bonds link subunits within the homodimer ...

    The sulfhydryl oxidase augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) binds FAD in a helix-rich domain that presents a CxxC disulfide proximal to the isoalloxazine ring of the flavin. Head-to-tail interchain disulfide bonds link subunits within the homodimer of both the short, cytokine-like, form of ALR (sfALR), and a longer form (lfALR) which resides in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS). lfALR has an 80-residue N-terminal extension with an additional CxxC motif required for the reoxidation of reduced Mia40 during oxidative protein folding within the IMS. Recently, Di Fonzo et al. [Di Fonzo, A., Ronchi, D., Lodi, T., Fassone, E., Tigano, M., Lamperti, C., Corti, S., Bordoni, A., Fortunato, F., Nizzardo, M., Napoli, L., Donadoni, C., Salani, S., Saladino, F., Moggio, M., Bresolin, N., Ferrero, I., and Comi, G. P. (2009) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 84, 594-604] described an R194H mutation of human ALR that led to cataract, progressive muscle hypotonia, and hearing loss in three children. The current work presents a structural and enzymological characterization of the human R194H mutant in lf- and sfALR. A crystal structure of human sfALR was determined by molecular replacement using the rat sfALR structure. R194 is located at the subunit interface of sfALR, close to the intersubunit disulfide bridges. The R194 guanidino moiety participates in three H-bonds: two main-chain carbonyl oxygen atoms (from R194 itself and from C95 of the intersubunit disulfide of the other protomer) and with the 2'-OH of the FAD ribose. The R194H mutation has minimal effect on the enzyme activity using model and physiological substrates of short and long ALR forms. However, the mutation adversely affects the stability of both ALR forms: e.g., by decreasing the melting temperature by about 10 degrees C, by increasing the rate of dissociation of FAD from the holoenzyme by about 45-fold, and by strongly enhancing the susceptibility of sfALR to partial proteolysis and to reduction of its intersubunit disulfide bridges by glutathione. Finally, a comparison of the TROSY-HSQC 2D NMR spectra of wild-type sfALR and its R194H mutant reveals a significant increase in conformational flexibility in the mutant protein. In sum, these in vitro data document the major impact of the seemingly conservative R194H mutation on the stability of dimeric ALR and complement the in vivo observations of Di Fonzo et al.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
FAD-linked sulfhydryl oxidase ALR
A, B, C
139Homo sapiensMutation(s): 2 
Gene Names: GFER (ALR, HERV1, HPO)
EC: 1.8.3.2
Find proteins for P55789 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: GFER
Go to UniProtKB:  P55789
Small Molecules
Ligands 4 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
ZN
Query on ZN

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B, C
ZINC ION
Zn
PTFCDOFLOPIGGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
NA
Query on NA

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Download CCD File 
A, B, C
SODIUM ION
Na
FKNQFGJONOIPTF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
ACT
Query on ACT

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Download CCD File 
A, B, C
ACETATE ION
C2 H3 O2
QTBSBXVTEAMEQO-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
FAD
Query on FAD

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Download CCD File 
A, B, C
FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE
C27 H33 N9 O15 P2
VWWQXMAJTJZDQX-UYBVJOGSSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.85 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.231 
  • R-Value Work: 0.189 
  • Space Group: C 1 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 112.719α = 90.00
b = 65.145β = 89.97
c = 63.767γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
ARP/wARPmodel building
StructureStudiodata collection
REFMACrefinement
HKL-2000data scaling
HKL-2000data reduction
CCP4model building

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2010-07-21
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Type: Version format compliance