3KQ6

Enhancing the Therapeutic Properties of a Protein by a Designed Zinc-Binding Site, Structural principles of a novel long-acting insulin analog


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.90 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.257 
  • R-Value Work: 0.199 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

Supramolecular protein engineering: design of zinc-stapled insulin hexamers as a long acting depot.

Phillips, N.B.Wan, Z.L.Whittaker, L.Hu, S.Q.Huang, K.Hua, Q.X.Whittaker, J.Ismail-Beigi, F.Weiss, M.A.

(2010) J Biol Chem 285: 11755-11759

  • DOI: 10.1074/jbc.C110.105825
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    3KQ6

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Bottom-up control of supramolecular protein assembly can provide a therapeutic nanobiotechnology. We demonstrate that the pharmacological properties of insulin can be enhanced by design of "zinc staples" between hexamers. Paired (i, i+4) His substitution ...

    Bottom-up control of supramolecular protein assembly can provide a therapeutic nanobiotechnology. We demonstrate that the pharmacological properties of insulin can be enhanced by design of "zinc staples" between hexamers. Paired (i, i+4) His substitutions were introduced at an alpha-helical surface. The crystal structure contains both classical axial zinc ions and novel zinc ions at hexamer-hexamer interfaces. Although soluble at pH 4, the combined electrostatic effects of the substitutions and bridging zinc ions cause isoelectric precipitation at neutral pH. Following subcutaneous injection in a diabetic rat, the analog effected glycemic control with a time course similar to that of long acting formulation Lantus. Relative to Lantus, however, the analog discriminates at least 30-fold more stringently between the insulin receptor and mitogenic insulin-like growth factor receptor. Because aberrant mitogenic signaling may be associated with elevated cancer risk, such enhanced specificity may improve safety. Zinc stapling provides a general strategy to modify the pharmacokinetic and biological properties of a subcutaneous protein depot.


    Related Citations: 
    • Enhancing the activity of insulin at the receptor interface: crystal structure and photo-cross-linking of A8 analogues.
      Wan, Z.L., Xu, B., Chu, Y.C., Li, B., Nakagawa, S.H., Qu, Y., Hu, S.Q., Katsoyannis, P.G., Weiss, M.A.
      (2004) Biochemistry 43: 16119
    • The structure of 2zn pig insulin crystal at 1.5 A resolution
      Baker, E.N., Blundell, T.L., Cutfield, J.F., Cutfield, S.M., Dodson, E.J., Dodson, G.G., Hodgkin, D., Isaacs, N.W., Reynolds, C.D.
      (1988) Philos Trans R Soc London,ser B 319: 369
    • Structure of insulin in 4-zinc insulin
      Bentley, G., Dodson, E., Dodson, G., Hodgkin, D., Mercola, D.
      (1976) Nature 261: 166
    • Phenol stabilizes more helix in a new symmetrical zinc insulin hexamer
      Derewenda, U., Derewenda, Z., Dodson, E., Dodson, G., Reynold, C., Smith, G., Sparks, C., Swenson, D.
      (1989) Nature 338: 594

    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Biochemistry, Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.



Macromolecules
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Insulin A chain AC21Homo sapiensMutation(s): 2 
Gene Names: INS
Find proteins for P01308 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P01308 
Go to UniProtKB:  P01308
NIH Common Fund Data Resources
PHAROS:  P01308
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  Structure
Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Insulin B chain BD30Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: INS
Find proteins for P01308 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P01308 
Go to UniProtKB:  P01308
NIH Common Fund Data Resources
PHAROS:  P01308
Protein Feature View
Expand
  • Reference Sequence
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.90 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.257 
  • R-Value Work: 0.199 
  • Space Group: H 3
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 78.091α = 90
b = 78.091β = 90
c = 36.399γ = 120
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
ADSCdata collection
CNSrefinement
d*TREKdata reduction
d*TREKdata scaling
CNSphasing

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2010-02-23
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance