3KQ6

Enhancing the Therapeutic Properties of a Protein by a Designed Zinc-Binding Site, Structural principles of a novel long-acting insulin analog


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.9 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.257 
  • R-Value Work: 0.199 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Supramolecular protein engineering: design of zinc-stapled insulin hexamers as a long acting depot.

Phillips, N.B.Wan, Z.L.Whittaker, L.Hu, S.Q.Huang, K.Hua, Q.X.Whittaker, J.Ismail-Beigi, F.Weiss, M.A.

(2010) J.Biol.Chem. 285: 11755-11759

  • DOI: 10.1074/jbc.C110.105825

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Bottom-up control of supramolecular protein assembly can provide a therapeutic nanobiotechnology. We demonstrate that the pharmacological properties of insulin can be enhanced by design of "zinc staples" between hexamers. Paired (i, i+4) His substitu ...

    Bottom-up control of supramolecular protein assembly can provide a therapeutic nanobiotechnology. We demonstrate that the pharmacological properties of insulin can be enhanced by design of "zinc staples" between hexamers. Paired (i, i+4) His substitutions were introduced at an alpha-helical surface. The crystal structure contains both classical axial zinc ions and novel zinc ions at hexamer-hexamer interfaces. Although soluble at pH 4, the combined electrostatic effects of the substitutions and bridging zinc ions cause isoelectric precipitation at neutral pH. Following subcutaneous injection in a diabetic rat, the analog effected glycemic control with a time course similar to that of long acting formulation Lantus. Relative to Lantus, however, the analog discriminates at least 30-fold more stringently between the insulin receptor and mitogenic insulin-like growth factor receptor. Because aberrant mitogenic signaling may be associated with elevated cancer risk, such enhanced specificity may improve safety. Zinc stapling provides a general strategy to modify the pharmacokinetic and biological properties of a subcutaneous protein depot.


    Related Citations: 
    • Enhancing the activity of insulin at the receptor interface: crystal structure and photo-cross-linking of A8 analogues.
      Wan, Z.L.,Xu, B.,Chu, Y.C.,Li, B.,Nakagawa, S.H.,Qu, Y.,Hu, S.Q.,Katsoyannis, P.G.,Weiss, M.A.
      (2004) Biochemistry 43: 16119
    • Phenol stabilizes more helix in a new symmetrical zinc insulin hexamer
      Derewenda, U.,Derewenda, Z.,Dodson, E.,Dodson, G.,Reynold, C.,Smith, G.,Sparks, C.,Swenson, D.
      (1989) Nature 338: 594
    • Structure of insulin in 4-zinc insulin
      Bentley, G.,Dodson, E.,Dodson, G.,Hodgkin, D.,Mercola, D.
      (1976) Nature 261: 166
    • The structure of 2zn pig insulin crystal at 1.5 A resolution
      Baker, E.N.,Blundell, T.L.,Cutfield, J.F.,Cutfield, S.M.,Dodson, E.J.,Dodson, G.G.,Hodgkin, D.,Isaacs, N.W.,Reynolds, C.D.
      (1988) Philos.Trans.R.Soc.London,Ser.B 319: 369


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Biochemistry, Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Insulin A chain
A, C
21Homo sapiensGene Names: INS
Find proteins for P01308 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: INS
Go to UniProtKB:  P01308
Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Insulin B chain
B, D
30Homo sapiensGene Names: INS
Find proteins for P01308 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: INS
Go to UniProtKB:  P01308
Small Molecules
Ligands 3 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
ZN
Query on ZN

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B, D
ZINC ION
Zn
PTFCDOFLOPIGGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
CL
Query on CL

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, D
CHLORIDE ION
Cl
VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
IPH
Query on IPH

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
C
PHENOL
C6 H6 O
ISWSIDIOOBJBQZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.9 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.257 
  • R-Value Work: 0.199 
  • Space Group: H 3
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 78.091α = 90.00
b = 78.091β = 90.00
c = 36.399γ = 120.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
d*TREKdata scaling
d*TREKdata reduction
CNSphasing
CNSrefinement
ADSCdata collection

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2010-02-23
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Type: Version format compliance