Crystal structure of the N47S/M121L variant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin in the Cu(II) state

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.60 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.266 
  • R-Value Work: 0.238 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.238 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report

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Rationally tuning the reduction potential of a single cupredoxin beyond the natural range.

Marshall, N.M.Garner, D.K.Wilson, T.D.Gao, Y.G.Robinson, H.Nilges, M.J.Lu, Y.

(2009) Nature 462: 113-116

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08551
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    3IN0, 3IN2, 3JT2, 3JTB

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Redox processes are at the heart of numerous functions in chemistry and biology, from long-range electron transfer in photosynthesis and respiration to catalysis in industrial and fuel cell research. These functions are accomplished in nature by only a limited number of redox-active agents. A long-standing issue in these fields is how redox potentials are fine-tuned over a broad range with little change to the redox-active site or electron-transfer properties. Resolving this issue will not only advance our fundamental understanding of the roles of long-range, non-covalent interactions in redox processes, but also allow for design of redox-active proteins having tailor-made redox potentials for applications such as artificial photosynthetic centres or fuel cell catalysts for energy conversion. Here we show that two important secondary coordination sphere interactions, hydrophobicity and hydrogen-bonding, are capable of tuning the reduction potential of the cupredoxin azurin over a 700 mV range, surpassing the highest and lowest reduction potentials reported for any mononuclear cupredoxin, without perturbing the metal binding site beyond what is typical for the cupredoxin family of proteins. We also demonstrate that the effects of individual structural features are additive and that redox potential tuning of azurin is now predictable across the full range of cupredoxin potentials.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Azurin128Pseudomonas aeruginosaMutation(s): 2 
Gene Names: azuPA4922
Find proteins for P00282 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 / DSM 22644 / CIP 104116 / JCM 14847 / LMG 12228 / 1C / PRS 101 / PAO1))
Explore P00282 
Go to UniProtKB:  P00282
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP00282
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on CU

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.60 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.266 
  • R-Value Work: 0.238 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.238 
  • Space Group: P 43 21 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 49.66α = 90
b = 49.66β = 90
c = 105.1γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
ADSCdata collection
HKL-2000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2009-11-17
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2021-10-13
    Changes: Database references, Derived calculations