3GNU

Toxin fold as basis for microbial attack and plant defense


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.90 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.222 
  • R-Value Work: 0.179 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.181 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

A common toxin fold mediates microbial attack and plant defense

Ottmann, C.Luberacki, B.Kufner, I.Koch, W.Brunner, F.Weyand, M.Mattinen, L.Pirhonen, M.Anderluh, G.Seitz, H.U.Nurnberger, T.Oecking, C.

(2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106: 10359-10364

  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0902362106
  • Structures With Same Primary Citation

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Many plant pathogens secrete toxins that enhance microbial virulence by killing host cells. Usually, these toxins are produced by particular microbial taxa, such as bacteria or fungi. In contrast, many bacterial, fungal and oomycete species produce n ...

    Many plant pathogens secrete toxins that enhance microbial virulence by killing host cells. Usually, these toxins are produced by particular microbial taxa, such as bacteria or fungi. In contrast, many bacterial, fungal and oomycete species produce necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like proteins (NLPs) that trigger leaf necrosis and immunity-associated responses in various plants. We have determined the crystal structure of an NLP from the phytopathogenic oomycete Pythium aphanidermatum to 1.35A resolution. The protein fold exhibits structural similarities to cytolytic toxins produced by marine organisms (actinoporins). Computational modeling of the 3-dimensional structure of NLPs from another oomycete, Phytophthora parasitica, and from the phytopathogenic bacterium, Pectobacterium carotovorum, revealed a high extent of fold conservation. Expression of the 2 oomycete NLPs in an nlp-deficient P. carotovorum strain restored bacterial virulence, suggesting that NLPs of prokaryotic and eukaryotic origins are orthologous proteins. NLP mutant protein analyses revealed that identical structural properties were required to cause plasma membrane permeabilization and cytolysis in plant cells, as well as to restore bacterial virulence. In sum, NLPs are conserved virulence factors whose taxonomic distribution is exceptional for microbial phytotoxins, and that contribute to host infection by plasma membrane destruction and cytolysis. We further show that NLP-mediated phytotoxicity and plant defense gene expression share identical fold requirements, suggesting that toxin-mediated interference with host integrity triggers plant immunity-associated responses. Phytotoxin-induced cellular damage-associated activation of plant defenses is reminiscent of microbial toxin-induced inflammasome activation in vertebrates and may thus constitute another conserved element in animal and plant innate immunity.


    Related Citations: 
    • Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an oomycete-derived Nep1-like protein.
      Luberacki, B., Weyand, M., Seitz, U., Koch, W., Oecking, C., Ottmann, C.
      (2008) Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 64: 1178

    Organizational Affiliation

    Center for Plant Molecular Biology-Plant Physiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.



Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
25 kDa protein elicitorP213Pythium aphanidermatumMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: SD21-1
Find proteins for Q9SPD4 (Pythium aphanidermatum)
Explore Q9SPD4 
Go to UniProtKB:  Q9SPD4
Protein Feature View
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  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
GAI
Query on GAI

Download CCD File 
P
GUANIDINE
C H5 N3
ZRALSGWEFCBTJO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
CL
Query on CL

Download CCD File 
P
CHLORIDE ION
Cl
VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 1.90 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.222 
  • R-Value Work: 0.179 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.181 
  • Space Group: P 43 21 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 51.94α = 90
b = 51.94β = 90
c = 175.034γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
XSCALEdata scaling
REFMACrefinement
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
MAR345dtbdata collection
XDSdata reduction
SnBphasing

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2009-06-09
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance