2UU7

Crystal structure of apo glutamine synthetase from dog (Canis familiaris)


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 3 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.230 
  • R-Value Work: 0.213 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Crystal Structures of Mammalian Glutamine Synthetases Illustrate Substrate-Induced Conformational Changes and Provide Opportunities for Drug and Herbicide Design.

Krajewski, W.W.Collins, R.Holmberg-Schiavone, L.Jones, T.A.Karlberg, T.Mowbray, S.L.

(2008) J.Mol.Biol. 375: 217

  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2007.10.029
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  2OJW, 2QC8

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ligation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine, with concomitant hydrolysis of ATP. In mammals, the activity eliminates cytotoxic ammonia, at the same time converting neurotoxic glutamate to harmless gluta ...

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ligation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine, with concomitant hydrolysis of ATP. In mammals, the activity eliminates cytotoxic ammonia, at the same time converting neurotoxic glutamate to harmless glutamine; there are a number of links between changes in GS activity and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. In plants, because of its importance in the assimilation and re-assimilation of ammonia, the enzyme is a target of some herbicides. GS is also a central component of bacterial nitrogen metabolism and a potential drug target. Previous studies had investigated the structures of bacterial and plant GSs. In the present publication, we report the first structures of mammalian GSs. The apo form of the canine enzyme was solved by molecular replacement and refined at a resolution of 3 A. Two structures of human glutamine synthetase represent complexes with: a) phosphate, ADP, and manganese, and b) a phosphorylated form of the inhibitor methionine sulfoximine, ADP and manganese; these structures were refined to resolutions of 2.05 A and 2.6 A, respectively. Loop movements near the active site generate more closed forms of the eukaryotic enzymes when substrates are bound; the largest changes are associated with the binding of the nucleotide. Comparisons with earlier structures provide a basis for the design of drugs that are specifically directed at either human or bacterial enzymes. The site of binding the amino acid substrate is highly conserved in bacterial and eukaryotic GSs, whereas the nucleotide binding site varies to a much larger degree. Thus, the latter site offers the best target for specific drug design. Differences between mammalian and plant enzymes are much more subtle, suggesting that herbicides targeting GS must be designed with caution.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, Box 596, SE-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O
381Canis lupus familiarisGene Names: GLUL
EC: 4.1.1.15, 6.3.1.2
Find proteins for Q8HZM5 (Canis lupus familiaris)
Go to Gene View: GLUL
Go to UniProtKB:  Q8HZM5
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
CL
Query on CL

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O
CHLORIDE ION
Cl
VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
MG
Query on MG

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O
MAGNESIUM ION
Mg
JLVVSXFLKOJNIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 3 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.230 
  • R-Value Work: 0.213 
  • Space Group: C 2 2 21
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 183.590α = 90.00
b = 485.602β = 90.00
c = 192.156γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
MOSFLMdata reduction
SCALAdata scaling
REFMACrefinement
AMoREphasing

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2007-10-16
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-05-07
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Type: Version format compliance