2QC8

Crystal structure of human glutamine synthetase in complex with ADP and methionine sulfoximine phosphate


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.6 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.217 
  • R-Value Work: 0.166 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.2 of the entry. See complete history

Literature

Crystal structures of mammalian glutamine synthetases illustrate substrate-induced conformational changes and provide opportunities for drug and herbicide design.

Krajewski, W.W.Collins, R.Holmberg-Schiavone, L.Jones, T.A.Karlberg, T.Mowbray, S.L.

(2008) J.Mol.Biol. 375: 217-228

  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2007.10.029
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ligation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine, with concomitant hydrolysis of ATP. In mammals, the activity eliminates cytotoxic ammonia, at the same time converting neurotoxic glutamate to harmless gluta ...

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ligation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine, with concomitant hydrolysis of ATP. In mammals, the activity eliminates cytotoxic ammonia, at the same time converting neurotoxic glutamate to harmless glutamine; there are a number of links between changes in GS activity and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. In plants, because of its importance in the assimilation and re-assimilation of ammonia, the enzyme is a target of some herbicides. GS is also a central component of bacterial nitrogen metabolism and a potential drug target. Previous studies had investigated the structures of bacterial and plant GSs. In the present publication, we report the first structures of mammalian GSs. The apo form of the canine enzyme was solved by molecular replacement and refined at a resolution of 3 A. Two structures of human glutamine synthetase represent complexes with: a) phosphate, ADP, and manganese, and b) a phosphorylated form of the inhibitor methionine sulfoximine, ADP and manganese; these structures were refined to resolutions of 2.05 A and 2.6 A, respectively. Loop movements near the active site generate more closed forms of the eukaryotic enzymes when substrates are bound; the largest changes are associated with the binding of the nucleotide. Comparisons with earlier structures provide a basis for the design of drugs that are specifically directed at either human or bacterial enzymes. The site of binding the amino acid substrate is highly conserved in bacterial and eukaryotic GSs, whereas the nucleotide binding site varies to a much larger degree. Thus, the latter site offers the best target for specific drug design. Differences between mammalian and plant enzymes are much more subtle, suggesting that herbicides targeting GS must be designed with caution.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, Box 596, SE-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.




Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Glutamine synthetase
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J
384Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: GLUL (GLNS)
EC: 6.3.1.2
Find proteins for P15104 (Homo sapiens)
Go to Gene View: GLUL
Go to UniProtKB:  P15104
Small Molecules
Ligands 4 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
MN
Query on MN

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J
MANGANESE (II) ION
Mn
WAEMQWOKJMHJLA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
ADP
Query on ADP

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J
ADENOSINE-5'-DIPHOSPHATE
C10 H15 N5 O10 P2
XTWYTFMLZFPYCI-KQYNXXCUSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
CL
Query on CL

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B, C, D, F, G, I, J
CHLORIDE ION
Cl
VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
 Ligand Interaction
P3S
Query on P3S

Download SDF File 
Download CCD File 
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J
L-METHIONINE-S-SULFOXIMINE PHOSPHATE
C5 H13 N2 O6 P S
QQFOFBSCSWFFPB-NMAPHRJESA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.6 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.217 
  • R-Value Work: 0.166 
  • Space Group: C 1 2 1
Unit Cell:
Length (Å)Angle (°)
a = 181.210α = 90.00
b = 126.080β = 92.14
c = 188.170γ = 90.00
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
MOLREPphasing
XDSdata reduction
XSCALEdata scaling
REFMACrefinement

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report or Ramachandran Plots



Entry History 

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2007-07-03
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2007-11-20
    Type: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Type: Advisory, Version format compliance