Human transthyretin (TTR) complexed with bivalant amyloid inhibitor (4 carbon linker)

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.46 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.224 
  • R-Value Work: 0.210 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.211 

wwPDB Validation   3D Report Full Report

This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history


Synthesis and characterization of potent bivalent amyloidosis inhibitors that bind prior to transthyretin tetramerization.

Green, N.S.Palaninathan, S.K.Sacchettini, J.C.Kelly, J.W.

(2003) J Am Chem Soc 125: 13404-13414

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ja030294z
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    2FBR, 2FLM

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    The misfolding of transthyretin (TTR), including rate-limiting tetramer dissociation and partial monomer denaturation, is sufficient for TTR misassembly into amyloid and other abnormal quaternary structures associated with senile systemic amyloidosis, familial amyloid polyneuropathy, and familial amyloid cardiomyopathy. Monovalent small molecules that bind to one or both of the unoccupied thyroid hormone binding sites at the TTR quaternary structure interface stabilize the native state, raising the kinetic barrier for tetramer dissociation sufficiently that the rate of dissociation, and therefore amyloidosis, becomes slow. Bivalent amyloid inhibitors that bind to both binding sites simultaneously are reported herein. The candidate bivalent inhibitors are generally unable to bind to the native TTR tetramer and typically do not engage in monovalent binding owing to a strong inhibitor orientation preference. However, the TTR quaternary structure can assemble around several of the bivalent inhibitors if the inhibitor intercepts the protein before assembly occurs. Some of the wild-type TTR.bivalent inhibitor complexes prepared in this fashion retain a tetrameric structure when subjected to substantial denaturation stresses (8 M urea, 120 h). The best bivalent inhibitor reduced acid-mediated TTR (3.6 microM) amyloid fibril formation to 6% of that exhibited by TTR in the absence of inhibitor, a significant improvement over the approximately 30% observed for the best monovalent inhibitors (3.6 microM, 72 h). The apparent dissociation rate of the best bivalent inhibitor is effectively zero, consistent with the idea that TTR tetramer dissociation and inhibitor dissociation are linked-as a result of the inhibitor-templating tetramer assembly. X-ray cocrystal structures of two of the complexes demonstrate that the bivalent inhibitors simultaneously occupy both sites in TTR, consistent with the 1:1 binding stoichiometry derived from HPLC analysis. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that bivalent inhibitors could be useful; what resulted are the best inhibitors produced to date. In this context, molecules capable of intercepting TTR during folding and assembly in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum would be of obvious interest.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Chemistry and Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, BCC265, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
A, B
127Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P02766 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P02766 
Go to UniProtKB:  P02766
PHAROS:  P02766
GTEx:  ENSG00000118271 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP02766
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on 44C

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
C30 H27 N O6
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.46 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.224 
  • R-Value Work: 0.210 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.211 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 42.599α = 90
b = 84.355β = 90
c = 65.569γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
SCALEPACKdata scaling
HKL-2000data reduction

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2005-12-27
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-05-01
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Derived calculations, Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2023-08-30
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations, Refinement description