Galactose Oxidase W290G mutant

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.20 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.226 
  • R-Value Work: 0.192 

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The Stacking Tryptophan of Galactose Oxidase: A Second-Coordination Sphere Residue that Has Profound Effects on Tyrosyl Radical Behavior and Enzyme Catalysis

Rogers, M.S.Tyler, E.M.Akyumani, N.Kurtis, C.R.Spooner, R.K.Deacon, S.E.Tamber, S.Firbank, S.J.Mahmoud, K.Knowles, P.F.Phillips, S.E.McPherson, M.J.Dooley, D.M.

(2007) Biochemistry 46: 4606-4618

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/bi062139d
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    2EIB, 2EIC, 2EID, 2EIE

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    The function of the stacking tryptophan, W290, a second-coordination sphere residue in galactose oxidase, has been investigated via steady-state kinetics measurements, absorption, CD and EPR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography of the W290F, W290G, and W290H variants. Enzymatic turnover is significantly slower in the W290 variants. The Km for D-galactose for W290H is similar to that of the wild type, whereas the Km is greatly elevated in W290G and W290F, suggesting a role for W290 in substrate binding and/or positioning via the NH group of the indole ring. Hydrogen bonding between W290 and azide in the wild type-azide crystal structure are consistent with this function. W290 modulates the properties and reactivity of the redox-active tyrosine radical; the Y272 tyrosyl radicals in both the W290G and W290H variants have elevated redox potentials and are highly unstable compared to the radical in W290F, which has properties similar to those of the wild-type tyrosyl radical. W290 restricts the accessibility of the Y272 radical site to solvent. Crystal structures show that Y272 is significantly more solvent exposed in the W290G variant but that W290F limits solvent access comparable to the wild-type indole side chain. Spectroscopic studies indicate that the Cu(II) ground states in the semireduced W290 variants are very similar to that of the wild-type protein. In addition, the electronic structures of W290X-azide complexes are also closely similar to the wild-type electronic structure. Azide binding and azide-mediated proton uptake by Y495 are perturbed in the variants, indicating that tryptophan also modulates the function of the catalytic base (Y495) in the wild-type enzyme. Thus, W290 plays multiple critical roles in enzyme catalysis, affecting substrate binding, the tyrosyl radical redox potential and stability, and the axial tyrosine function.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Galactose oxidase639Fusarium graminearumMutation(s): 1 
Find proteins for P0CS93 (Gibberella zeae)
Explore P0CS93 
Go to UniProtKB:  P0CS93
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP0CS93
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on CU

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
Query on NA

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.20 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.226 
  • R-Value Work: 0.192 
  • Space Group: P 65 2 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 89.884α = 90
b = 89.884β = 90
c = 415.325γ = 120
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
PDB_EXTRACTdata extraction
ADSCdata collection
DENZOdata reduction
SCALEPACKdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2007-04-24
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-04-30
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2021-11-10
    Changes: Database references, Derived calculations